Chapter 22 Terms

  1. Triangle Shirtwaist Co. Fire
    withdoors locked, a fire broke out in the factory March 25, 191. Top Stories wereablaze and nobody could get out, 146 people died from either jumping from thebuilding or burning alive *ledto wide concern about modern industry*
  2. Progressives
    calledfor efficient and honest government, regulation of business, more orderlyeconomy, social justice for the poor and working class, social welfare,cleaning up the nation. They wanted to redeem traditional American values, usedorganization, management, and science to fight its excesses. We moderatemodernizers, only wanted to adjust the American system, believed in Darwinism,
  3. Pragmatism
    “Does it work?”developed by Charles Peirce, William James defined it as “looking towards pastthings, fruits, consequences, facts”
  4. Behaviorism
    thebelief that human behavior could be shaped at will, developed by John B. Watson
  5. Thorstein Veblin
    cameup with ideas of conspicuous consumption (buying to show off wealth such asbuying a sports car) and leisure (buying for leisurely activities like tennis)
  6. Sociological Jurisprudence
    developedby Louis Brandies, idea that the law must “guide by the light of reason” andbring everyday life into any court case. Says must look at why they committedcrime, and the past and present before the crime
  7. Muckrakers
    newreporters that documented dishonesty and blight, and therefore aroused peopleand educated them about a certain issue or cause*ledway for many reform movements*
  8. National Consumer League
    avolunteer organization that was developed to protect consumers and workers fromexploitations
  9. Naturalism
    isa new artistic style that overwhelmed paintings and writings, especially withessays like Riis’. Took pictures of worst part of nation in order to elicitstrong emotion and hopefully evoke change
  10. Margaret Sanger
    soughtto free women from the bonds of chronic pregnancy. Started preaching free loveand birth control in order to free women from unwanted pregnancies
  11. Keating-Own Act
    - developedunder Lathrop’s leadership, Congress passed. This act forbade goodsmanufactured by children to cross state lines. But it was later struck down bythe Supreme Court in 1918 as an improper regulation of local labor *the law focused greater attention on theabuses of child labor*
  12. Carrie Chapman Catt
    -president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, mapped astrategy of education and persuasion from state to state where she wouldconvince women to rally for the suffrage cause
  13. Nineteenth Amendment
    -in 1920, enfranchised women. The eligible number of voters in the countrydoubled.
  14. Eugenics
    - anew science that said newcomers were biologically inferior and that hereditylargely shaped all human behavior, therefore selective breeding was ideal,sterilization
  15. Dillingham Commission
    - a special congressional committee formed in February 1907 by the United States Congress, which was thenunder intense pressure from various nativist groups,to study the origins and consequences of recent immigration to the United States. It was a joint committee composed of members of both the House and Senate.
  16. Anti-Saloon League
    - leda massive publicity campaign to prohibit the sale of alcohol at all local andstate levels, handed out pamphlets and advertisements and health facts andsocial workers to denounce alcohol
  17. Mann Act
    - passedby Congress in 1910, prohibited the interstate transport of women for immoralpurposes
  18. Jane Addams
    - leda reform movement for garbage disposal and removal because of all that waspiling up in front of her hull house
  19. Commission Plan
    - inreaction to the sinking of the municipal government after a Texas flood,business leaders won approval of a new charter that replaced the mayor and citycouncil with a powerful commission, each of five commissioners controlled amunicipal department, and together they ran the city. *expertcommissioners enhanced efficiency and helped to check party rule in municipalgovernment*
  20. City-Manager Plan
    - elected officials appointed an outside expert aka “city manage” to run things like services doctors and nurses, finances, accountants, public health, firefighters, and police, and citizens’ safety.*attempted to break corrupt alliance between companies doing business and the bosses who controlled the wards, helped to create a nonpartisan bureaucracy*
  21. Wisconsin Idea
    - createdby Robert La Follette under T.R., produced the most comprehensive set of statereforms in American history. Regulated railroads, weakened the hold of partybosses, created a state income tax, and state commission to oversee factorysafety and sanitation, and a Legislative Reference Bureaus at the U. ofWisconsin
  22. Initiative
    -additional reform that created a voter introduction of legislation*createdto cut the power of party organizations and make officeholders directlyresponsible to the public*
  23. Referendum
    - additionalreform that allowed voters to enact or repeal laws*createdto cut the power of party organizations and make officeholders directlyresponsible to the public*
  24. Recall
    -additional reform that allowed voter-initiated removal of elected officials*createdto cut the power of party organizations and make officeholders directlyresponsible to the public*
  25. Seventeenth Amendment
    -permitted the direct election of senators
  26. William McKinley
    - assassinatedearly into presidency, handed power over to his VP Theodore Roosevelt
  27. Theodore Roosevelt
    - republican,passionate for order, committed to public. Thought that the president could doanything not expressly forbidden in the Constitution. Utilized the press,embodied honesty, hard work, constancy, courage, and self-control
  28. Brownsville Incident
    -T.R. discharged “without honor” three entire companies of black troops becausesome of the soldiers were unjustly charged with having “shot up” Brownsville,TX*actstained Roosevelt’s record*
  29. Square Deal
    -envisioned a big government that could ensure fair results for all, named hisadministrative program the “Square Deal” when he campaigned for his second term
  30. Anthracite Strike
    -Roosevelt in 1902 intervened in a strike that idled 140,000 miners and hadparalyzed anthracite coal industries, summoned both corporate and worker sidesto the White House and acted to the aide of the workers*1sttime a president had acted on behalf of the strikers
  31. US vs E.C. Knight
    - SupremeCourt case that crippled the Sherman Antitrust Act by ruling that the lawapplied only to commerce and not to manufacturing, left the American SugarRefining Company in control of 98 percent of the nation’s sugar factories
  32. Bad Trusts
    - T.R. said that trustshad to be held to strict standards of morality based on conduct, not size wasused to measure their quality. Bad ones were broken up by T.R.
  33. Elkins Act-
    - Enacted by Congress in 1903 which gave the Interstate Commerce Commission power to endrebates*especiallyhelped to end high RR costs*
  34. Hepburn Act
    - allowedthe Interstate Commerce Commission to set ceilings on rates and to regulatesleeping car companies, ferries, bridges, and terminals*appeased Progressives, and drew Roosevelt nearer to goal of continuous regulation ofbusiness*
  35. Upton Sinclair
    - authorof The Jungle which spurred Congressto act. Sinclair recruited people to socialism by exposing the plight ofworkers in the meatpacking industry
  36. Pure Food and Drug Act
    - passedby Congress in 1906, soon followed by the Meat Inspection Act, both regulatedfood and drug industries
  37. Reclamation Act
    - introducedby Democratic Senator Frederick Newlands of Nevada to set aside proceeds fromthe sale of public lands for irrigation projects*signaleda progressive step toward the conservationist end of ration resourcedevelopment*
  38. John Muir
    - naturalistand wilderness philosopher who led the preservationists, campaigned against the“devotees of ravaging commercialism”, founded the Sierra Club in 1892 in hopesof maintaining such natural wonders as Yosemite and its neighboringHetch-Hetchy valley in a state “forever wild” to benefit future generations
  39. William Howard Taft
    - Roosevelt’s hand picked successor, Republican, used to be TRs secretary of war, very heavyset disliked by all parties
  40. Insurgents
    • - an armed rebellion against a constituted when those taking part in the
    • rebellion are not recognized as belligerents. An
    • insurgency can be fought via counter-insurgency warfare,
    • and may also be opposed by measures to protect the population, and by political
    • and economic actions of various kinds
    • aimed at undermining the insurgents' claims against the incumbent regime.[2] An "insurgency" may
    • include, but not necessarily use, guerrilla warfare.
  41. Ballinger- Pinchot
    • breaking
    • point between Taft and the progressives over conservation. Taft had appointed
    • Richard Ballinger secretary of the interior over the objections of Roosevelt’s
    • old friend and mentor Chief Forester Pinchot, Ballinger later opened a million
    • acres of public lands for sale and was charged by Pinchot of having shady
    • dealings to transfer Alaskan public oil coal lands to J.P. Morgan, early 1910
    • was fired by Taft for insubordination

    • *seen
    • by progressives as another betrayal*
  42. New Nationalism
    • T.R.’s
    • new presidential reform program he campaigned during the run for his third
    • term. Stressed the interests of the nation as a whole and the value of
    • government as an agent of reform. Accepted consolidation in the economy but insisted
    • on protecting the interests of individuals through big government. Promised
    • government planning and efficiency under a powerful executive, taxes on incomes
    • and inheritances, greater regulation of industry, social justice for workers
  43. Bull Moose Party
    • Roosevelt’s new presidential party name as the
    • Progressives nominated him for his third term, gave progressives their party
    • symbol
  44. New Freedom
    • Play
    • on T.R.’s “New Nationalism,” advocated by Woodrow Wilson. Rejected T.R.’s
    • economic consolidation, said big business was a sin.
  45. Woodrow Wilson
    • Democrat who won Election of 1912, very liberal,
    • advocated New Freedom campaign, led presidency with progressive reform
  46. Eugene V. Debs
    • socialist
    • candidate for 1912 election, summoned voters to make “the working class the
    • ruling class”
  47. Underwood-Simmons Act
    • Under Woodrow Wilson in 1913, lowered the
    • tariff, first time this had occurred in 19 years
  48. Fereral Reserve Act
    • Created
    • under Wilson in 1913, created the Federal Reserve System which contained 12
    • regional banks nationwide and created a central Fed. Reserve Board in WA,
    • appointed by the president, to supervise the system. The board could regulate
    • credit and the money supply by setting the interest rate it charged member
    • banks, by buying or selling government bond, and by issuing paper currency
    • called Federal Reserve notes

    • *sought
    • to stabilize the existing order by increasing Fed. Control over credit and the
    • money supply*
  49. Federal Trade Commission
    • Under Wilson in 1914, created a bi-partisan
    • executive agency to oversee business activity, enforced orderly competition
  50. Clayton Anti-Trust Act
    • Under
    • Wilson in 1914, barred some of the worst corporate practices such as price
    • discrimination, holding companies, and interlocking directorates (directors of
    • one corporate board sitting on others)
  51. Federal Farm Loan Act
    • a United States federal law aimed at increasing credit to rural, family farmers.
    • It did so by creating a federal farm loan board, twelve regional farm loan
    • banks and tens of farm loan associations. The act was signed into law by President of the United States Woodrow Wilson.
Card Set
Chapter 22 Terms
history terms from NoN