The Heart

  1. Blood vessels that cary blood to and from the lungs
    pulmonary circuit
  2. vessels that transport blood to and from all body tissues
    sytemic circuit
  3. Receives O2 poor blood from body and pumps it to the lungs to pick up O2 and expel CO2
    Right side of the heart
  4. Receives the O2 blood from lungs and pumps to body
    Left side of the heart
  5. Posterior broad surface of the heart
    Heart's base
  6. The Heart is located in the ____________ Mediastinum
  7. The purpose of the circulatory system is to ______________.
    Pump blood throughout the body. This includes not only O2 and CO2, but nutrients, water hormone, nitrogenous waste, etc.
  8. Deoxygenated blood enters the _________ side. Oxygenated blood is pumped out the ________ side.
    right, left
  9. The hearts position in thorax
    Situated obliquely, 2/3 to the left, 1/3 to the right
  10. The apex is directed _____ and ______ in the thorax.
    anteriorly and left
  11. Anterior border
    right ventricle
  12. left or lateral border
    left ventricle
  13. Superior Border
    right and left atria
  14. The pulmonary truck and the aorta exit the heart
  15. The pulmonary truck is __________ to the ascending aorta.
  16. The _____________ _________ passes from the left pulmonary artery to the root of the aorta.
    Ligamentum arteriosum
  17. The superior vena cava enters the heart from the ____________.
    Superior right side
  18. The inferior border
    right and left ventricles
  19. The inferior vena cava approches the heart from the ________________.
    Inferior right side
  20. Anterior and posterior Interventricular Sulci
    vertical grooves separating ventricles on anterior and posterior surfaces, respectively.
  21. Coronary Sulcus
    atrioventricular sulcus
  22. Inner Layer of the Pericardium
    Visceral pericardium or Epicardium
  23. Middle layer of the pericardium
    Parietal layer- Serous or parietal pericardium
  24. Outside layer of the parietal pericardium
    Fibrous Pericardium
  25. There is no potential space between the ____ and ____ layers of the pericardium.
    fibrous and parietal
  26. The Pericardial Space (cavity) is a serious fluid filled space between __________.
    parietal and visceral layers
  27. How does the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space between the visceral and parietal pericardium affect the heart?
    It prevent the heart chambers from expanding and filling
  28. An accumulation of blood from injured pericardial capillary
    Cardiac tamponade
  29. Lack of serous fluid causeing pain when visceral and parietal layers adhere
  30. The inner most layer of the heart comprised of an endothelial lining
  31. The thick middle layer of cardiac muscle
  32. The outer layer of visceral pericardium
  33. The __________ serve as filling chambers
  34. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the ___________ and ______________.
    Sup. and inf. vena cava
  35. The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the ________________.
    Pulmonary veins
  36. The _______________ are the pumping chambers.
  37. The right ventricle pumps blood through the ____________ to the __________.
    Pulmonary arteries to the lungs
  38. The left ventericle pumps blood through the ________ to the body.
  39. The myocardium of the ___________ ventricle is much thicker than the other.
  40. The right and left ventricles are separated by ____________________________.
    an interventricular septum
  41. The interventricular septum is muscluar _______, and membranous ____________.
    inferiorly, superiorly
  42. The posterior wall of the right atrium
    Sinus venarum - smooth walled
  43. The posterior wall of the right atrium receives the ______, ____________, and __________.
    Sup and Inf. vena cava and Coronary Sinus
  44. The posterior wall of the Rt. Atrium also contains:
    • Opening to the coronary sinus
    • Fossa Ovalis
    • SA and AV node
  45. The Anterior wall of the Rt atrium is made up of ______________, which is separated from the smooth post. wall by _____________.
    Pectinate muscle, Crista terminalis
  46. The anterior and posterior walls of the Rt. Atrium are joined by _____________ ________ ___________.
    Pectinate-lined right auricle
  47. Supports the structure of walls in ventricle ("beams of meat")
    Trabeculae Carne
  48. A smooth walled, cone shaped outflow in the Right ventricle leading to the Pulmonary trunk. AKA infundibulum
    Conus arteriosis
  49. Responsible for anchoring leaflets of valve
    Chordae tendinae
  50. Conical projections of myocardium that project via chordae tendinae to the tricupsid valve (rt ventricle) or bicuspid valve (left ventricle).
    • Papillary muscles-
    • Left Ventricle: ant and post
    • Right Ventricle: ant, post, and septal
  51. A muscular bundle in the right ventricle that runs from the interventricular septum to the ant. pap muscle. Contains elements for transmission of electrical impulse. Prevents over dilation of ventricle
    Moderator Band
  52. The left atrium is a _____________ chamber that receives ____________________, and is joined by __________________.
    smooth walled, the four pulmonary veins, pectinate-lined left auricle
  53. The strongest pumping ventricle with the thickest myocardium
    Left Ventricle
  54. Types of atrioventricular valves:
    tricuspid and bicuspid (mitral)
  55. The valve separating the right atrium and right ventricle
    Tricuspid Valve
  56. The valve separating the left atrium and left ventricle
    Bicuspid or mitral valve
  57. The two types of Semilunar valves:
    the Aortic Semilunar and Pulmonary Semilunar
  58. The valve that lies between the ascending aorta and the left ventricle
    The Aortic Semilunar Valve
  59. The valve that lies between the Pulmonary trunk and the right ventricle
    The Pulmonary Semilunar Valve
  60. Two rare examples of arteries having valves are:
    Aorta and Pulmonary Trunk
  61. Because the fetus receives oxygenated blood from the mother...
    the fetus does not oxygenate blood in its lungs
  62. Structures the fetal heart has to keep most of the blood from going to its lungs:
    Foramen ovale and Ductus arteriosus
  63. A hole to enable blood to move directly from right to left atrium.
    Foramen Ovale
  64. The foramen ovale closes shortly after birth to become the
    Fossa ovalis
  65. A duct from the left pulmonary artery to the descending aorta to re-channel blood (oxygenated) from going into the lungs, to going into the aorta
    Ductus arteriosus
  66. When an infant is said to be born with a "hole in the heart" it means....
    Part of the membranous interventricular septum is malformed ("ventricular septal defect" or VSD).
  67. ASD or "atrial septal defect"
    a patent foramen ovale in the interatrial septum
  68. The arterial supply of oxygen to the muscles of the heart
    coronary arteries
  69. The _____ coronary artery branches into: Anterior Interventricular Artery, Circumflex Artery and lelft Marginal Arteries
  70. The ___________ Coronary artery branches into to Right Marginal Artery and the Posterior Interventricular Artery.
  71. Venous drainage of deoxy blood from the muscles of the heart
    Cardiac Veins
  72. The Great Cardiac Vein becomes the ___________, which empties into the ______ ___________.
    Coronary sinus, Right atrium
  73. The Middle and small vardiac veins empty into the __________ ______.
    Coronary Sinus
  74. Only the __________ cardiac and ____________ cardiac veins DO NOT empty into the coronary sinus.
    anterior, smallest
  75. The Great Cardiac Vein runs along side the ___________ _______________ ________.
    Anterior Interventricular artery
  76. The Middle Cardiac Vein runs along side the ________________ __________ ____________.
    Posterior Interventricular artery
  77. The small cardiac vein comes from the same area as the _________ _____________.
    Right marginal artery
  78. The cardiac skeleton is made up of
    dense CT
  79. Functions of the Carciac Skeleton:
    • -Encircles the 4 valves
    • -Attaches myocardium together
    • -Provides support for valves around orfice
    • -Prevents impules from passing from atria to ventricles
  80. Function of Sinoatrial node
    • AKA Pacemaker
    • Impulse-generating tissue located in rt. atrium.
    • Creates normal sinus rhythm
    • "impulses to contract spread through atria"
  81. ___________ __________ prevents the spread of impulses to ventricles.
    Cardiac Skeleton
  82. Fuction, location of Atrioventricular Node
    • Located in base of right atrium
    • Transmits impulses to ventricles via AV Bundle (Bundle of His)
  83. Extensions of the AV bundle into the papillary muscles and myocardium
    Purkinje Fibers
  84. During the ________ __________, the two artia contract together follwed by the subsequent contraction of the two ventricles
    Cardiac cycle
  85. Ventricular contraction (atria are relaxing)
  86. Ventricular relaxation (atria are contracting)
  87. The contraction of the ventricles causes the atrioventricular valve to slam shut
  88. The semilunar valves slam shut to prevent the backflow (regurgitation) of blood from great arteries back into the ventricles.
  89. Autonomic innervation of the heart passes mainly through the _________ __________
    Cardiac plexus
  90. Sympathetic innervation from __________ and ______________
    Sympathetic trunk and cardiac nerves
  91. Parasympathetic innervation from the _______.
    Vagus nerve (CN X)
  92. During a sympathetic response, baroreceptors and chemoreceptors in carotid artery and arch of aorta detect ___________ and/or ____________.
    Low BP, high CO2 concentrations
  93. During a sympathetic response: cardio-___________ centers in meduulla oblongate sends signals via cardiac nerves to ___________________ in the heart. The nodes create impulses that are ____________ to increase heart rate.
    accelatory, SA and AV nodes, faster and stronger
  94. During a sympathetic response ________________ centers in medulla oblongata sends signals via ____________ nerves to arteriese and veins. Vessel diameter constricts, then blood pressure ______________.
    Vaso-constriction, sympathetic, increases
  95. During a parasympathetic response, baroreceptors and chemoreceptors in carotid artery and arch of aorta detect ______________ and/or _________________.
    High bp, low co2 concentrations
  96. During a parasympathetic response, Cardio-___________ centers in medulla oblongata sends signals via vagus nerves to ___________ in the heart. The nodes create impulses that are ___________________ to decrease heart rate.
    inhibitory, SA and AV nodes, slower and weaker
  97. During a parasympathetic response, ____________ centers in medulla oblongata sends signals via ___________ nerves to arteries and veins. Vessel diameter increases and bp ___________.
    vaso-dilation, parasympathetic, decreases
  98. Sympathetic innervation from cervical and thoracic sympathetic chaing ganglia via _______________:
    -Pass throug the _____________ to nodal tissue
    -Stimulation ___________ heart rate and force of contractions
    -__________ bp in arteries
    • Cardiac nerves
    • cardiac plexus
    • increases
    • increases
  99. Parasympathetic innervation from ______________:

    -pass through cardiac plexus to __________ and ______________________________
    -_________ heartrate and _____________ force of contraction
    -__________ bp in arteries
    • Vagus Nerve
    • nodal tissue and smooth muscle of coronary arteries
    • slows, reduces
    • decreases
Card Set
The Heart
Anatomy 3611