Environmental Science- water

  1. fresh water
    water that is relatively pure with few dissolved salts, 2.5% of the Earth's water
  2. surface water
    water found on Earth's surface
  3. runoff
    water that flows over land and has not been absorbed into the ground
  4. river system
    a network of connected streams and rivers
  5. watershed
    includes all of the land area that supplies water to a particular system
  6. groundwater
    water found below Earth's surface
  7. permeable
    layers through which water can pass
  8. impermeable
    layers with few or no pores
  9. aquifers
    sponge-like formations of rock, sand, or gravel that hold water
  10. zone of aeration
    an aquifer's upper layer that contains pores through which water can flow
  11. zone of saturation
    lower layer of aquifer where the spaces are completely filled with water
  12. water table
    the boundary between the zone of aeration and the zone of saturation
  13. recharge zone
    any area where surface water soaks into the ground and reaches an aquifer below
  14. well
    a hole dug into an aquifer to reach groundwater
  15. water diversion
    the process of moving water from its source to places where humans use it, such as homes and farm fields
  16. dam
    any obstruction placed in a river or stream to block its flow
  17. reservoirs
    large lakes that store water for human use
  18. salinization
    buildup of salts in the surface layers of soil
  19. groundwater mining
    withdrawing groundwater faster than it can be replaced
  20. desalination
    desalinization; a strategy to "make" more fresh water by removing salt from seawater
  21. xeriscaping
    a practice that requires much less water by planting climate-appropriate plants
  22. point-source pollution
    pollution that comes from distinct locations, like a factory or sewer pipes
  23. nonpoint-source pollution
    pollution that comes from many places spread over a large area
  24. cultural eutrophication
    artificial eutrophication; nutrient pollution by humans that increaes the rate of eutrophication
  25. wastewater
    water that has been used by people in some way
  26. algal blooms
    a sudden explosion of algal growth caused by excess nutrients
  27. pathogens
    disease-causing organisms and viruses
  28. biological pollution
    when pathogens make their way into our air, soil, and water
  29. oil seepage
    oil from the deposits on the sea floor leak into the ocean
  30. red tide
    a type of algal bloom with reddish pigments
  31. effluent
    treated water
  32. septic systems
    wastewater runs through a pipe from a house to an underground septic tank, is cleansed, and makes its way to aquifers
  33. sludge
    solid waste
Card Set
Environmental Science- water