Figures on the Parthenon, according to Winckelman, express not only nature but "something beyond nature." Greeks apprehended "ideal forms." Only way to get to it is through imitation
Attempt to convey in rhetorical/literary terms the content of art. Use of language to convey something non-linguistic.
Enclosed part of a temple where deity (Athena) stands
Topmost step of temple's base, on which the columns are placed. The "floor" of the temple. CURVES
Triangular section above the entablature, containing the tympanum with sculptures inside it.
lowermost band of entablature, resting on the columns
Sections of frieze containing rectangular block with three vertical bands, alternating with the metopes on the frieeze.
- Rectangular space between the triglyphs, above the architrave, with sculptural reliefs inside - eg. depicting the battle between Centaurs & Lapiths
- 92 reliefs of individual scenes
- central part of the entablature, with low-relief marble sculptures
cylindrical blocks of stone used to construct shaft of column
channel/groove on shaft of column
topmost part of column, supporting square abacus and
Has no base. Heavy fluted shaft, supporting an ovolo moulding beneath a square abacus
Fluted column with moulded base. More elaborate capital, with curvy volutes
Has a base, slender fluted column and an elaborate in-carved capital with acanthus leaves and scrolls.
Inner Frieze of Parthenon
Low-relief sculpture above the inner colonnade, that runs around the exterior wall of the cella, containing one long, continuous subject - apparently the Panathaneic festival. Very high and poorly lit.
Inner layer frieze showing Pan-Athenaic procession, the view of which is blocked by the columns. Defined as a relief with less than 1/2 projecting. Borders the wall of the cella.
- More than 1/2 of depth projected. Placed outside in two places:
- 1) On the metopes outside, showing battles between humans/monsters
- 2) On the East and West Pediments
Found on the East Pediment of Parthenon. Refers to diaphonously clinging drapery that exposes the contours of the body.
- - Pointed arches
- - Ribbed Vaults
- - Flying buttresses
- - Skeletal structure
- - Stress on natural light
- - Relationality to other churches (buildings reference each other)
- - Modernity (notion of Gothic as modernitas because of lack of prototype).
- - Tem invented during Renaissance and back-applied
13th century Catholic church, 1220-1270.
post and lintel
structure with vertical beams (posts) supporting horizontal beams (lintel)
semicircular arch that replaced post-and-lintel, can bear more weight
stack of arches placed side-by-side
Intersection of barrel vaults
Old St. Peter's
Has central aisle demarcated by colonnade, longitudinal structure, and "Oriented" East.
arched recess above door; if huge and prominent, central door, a tympanum.
longitudinal arm of church, from entrance/narthex to chancel. Flanked by the smaller aisles.
upper portion of interior above adjacent rooftops and admitting daylight through windows
transverse section, transecting the nave at crossing, at right angle, at entrance to the choir
passageway to either side of the nave, separated from it by colonnade
aisle running around east end of church, behind sanctuary, allowing you to visit side chapels
Dividing the surface into panels by molding
Resembles a groin vault, but the surface is divided into webs by a framework of angled, diagonal arched ribs. Ornamental work creating a complex, angled surface.
- succession of arches supported by columns or piers
- decorative arcade on wall surface, with no actual openings
- -In the Parthenon, triangular area inside pediment with sculptural reliefs
- -In Amiens cathedral, the arched recess above the door. The middle portal shows the last Judgment, with Christ in the middle, Mary on the right and St. John the Baptist on the left. The damned are ushered by the devils into the mouth of hell. Above them angels with flaming sword. The saved are welcomed into heaven.
column supporting tympanum of doorway at its center
- shallow arched gallery at the side of the nave, often having a blind arcade or an opening in a gallery.
- Intense illumination focused on the altar. Pillar lines meet at ribbed vaulting. Pillars as trees. Moving through church as pilgrimage.
- Body no longer a crucial center of meaning
Initially centered in Florence and Naples, a reaction against medieval scholasticism, which emphasized specialized training in limited sphere (theology, logic, medicine, natural sciences). Birth of "humanism" interested in broader citizenry: rhetoric, poetry, history, moral philosophy. New interest in intellect and knowledge as empirically produced through engagement with world around you.
Used by Alberti, Da Vinci. Farther objects become less visually distinct, with less contrast, detail, and saturation. Colors shift towards background color.
Use of deep variations and subtle gradations of light and shade, pioneered by Da Vinci, who had much more tonal contrast than Raphael
Three components of painting according to Alberti
- 1) Outline (disegno): set up a veil btw. you and object, helping you transform 3d object into 2d.
- 2) Composition: arrangement of bodies in space, but mostly focused on istoria, action taking oplace in time, a scene, an event.
- 3) Reception of light (color): balance of light/shadow, which modify the appearance of color. Setting things apart rather than medieval blocks of color that would flatten the figure.
- Action taking place in time: make every part of the body expressive. Have everyone face different direction. Has to appeal to the senses as well as the mind. Visual tension, articulation of event. Hinges on depiction/placement of bodies: affective states (rather than Parthenon's univesal values)
- "the painter's greatest work". Istorias "take their themes from classical literature" and religious sources, "and gain emotional power by representing a number of people reacting to the central event portrayed".
- "the istoria will move the soul of the beholder when each man painted there clearly shows the movement of his own soul: we weep with the weeping, laugh with the laughing, and grieve with the grieving. These movements of the soul are made known by movements of the body"
disegno vs. colorito
- diesgno: conception of painting in which line is primary. Eg: Michelangelo. Sketches before painting. More rationalized
- color: more sensuous, material, emphasizing physical properties.
drawing: for Alberti, the essential factor in art, a "project undertaken by the mind" using reason and expressed in lines and angles
- The grid is placed between the object and the artist. A similar grid is then drawn on a drawing surface. By using the grid the artist can achieve:
- A clear, manageable guide to proportions.The image is partitioned into segments that can be perceived as they are, without associative disturbance.By altering either of the grids it is easy to make a transformation of scale, perspective or proportions.Useful when dealing with foreshortening or when accuracy of proportion is important to the layout.
Lines that are parallel will, in real life, seem to converge at a vanishing point.
- Straight diagonal lines drawn to connect points around the edges of a picture to the vanishing point. Parallel lines receding into the distance help draw the viewer's eye into the depth of the picture. They converge on the horizon line (though in reality are parallel). Eg, center of Raphael's Marriage of the Virgin.
Distortion seen by the eye when an object or figure is viewed at a distance or at an unusual angle. Creates illusion of 3d space
bulging out of Parthenon columns in the middle, tapering ends
Human body's proportions fit geometric regularity. Geometry of body seen as divine
- Mathematical system for creating the illusion of space and distance on a flat surface. Originated in Florence in the early 1400s. Leon Battista Alberti was first to write down rules of linear perspective for artists to follow.
- An artist must first imagine the picture surface as an "open window" through which to see the painted world. Straight lines are then drawn on the canvas to represent the horizon and "visual rays" connecting the viewer's eye to a point in the distance: the horizon line, orthogonal lines, and vanishing point.
the act, process of making something: Eg. Michelangelo interested in the creation of an artwork and its material production.
asymmetrical arrangement of the human figure, usually with weight on one leg, and hips and shoulders in different axes. Suggests organic movement and life within figure itself.
Debate from the Italian Renaissance in which one form of art (architecture, sculpture or painting) is championed as superior to all others. Leonardo da Vinci's treatise on painting, noting the difficulty of painting and supremacy of sight, while Michelangelo believed in sculpture
- 1. naked male figures painted as supports in the corner of the main narrative scenes in the center of the Sistine Chappel.
- 2. winged cherubic infants
Rapid painting on wet plaster surface with watercolors. Unlike oil, can't be reworked easily. Tend to be lighter - hard to achieve tonal depth. Different facture: hard to conceal brush-strokes since it dries quickly.
- 15th-C diffusion of humanism coinciding with Protestant reformation, centralization of power (monarchical nation-states, not Italian city-states) and an affluent middle class.
- Special concern with color, detail. Had less access to classical models. Perfected use of oil-paint. Enamel-like surfaces, the layering of translucent glazes of color allowed light to pass through and be reflected by opaque underlayers, lending a greater sense of luminosity to the paintings.
entirely monochrome painting, usually shades of gray. Simulates unpainted stone sculpture. Can be used as basis for engraving.
- thickly applied paint: controls play of light, adds expressiveness, and sculptural quality.
- Rembrandt's layers of opaque painting obscures the thing being painting, emphasizing method over object. Much more secular production: material value of artwork becomes more prominent.
hierarchy of genres:
- 1) History Painting, especially Bible/Classical myth
- 2) Portraiture
- 3) Genre scenes (scenes of everyday life)
- 4) Landscapes
- 6) Still life
Allegorizing, idealism at the top. Also hierarchy of mediums: finished, grandscale oil painting, sketch, print.
- 1) Engraving - Design carved on metal plate with a burin. Then covered in ink, which is absorbed by a paper. Very linear, takes a long time, little flexibility or variation of line. Can only vary spacing & thickness.
- 2) Etching - Design made by an acid, not burin. Covered in wax, which is then carved off, and exposed to acid. which eats away carving. Then wax is removed and paper/ink added. Gives more control and variation.
- 3) Drypoint engraving - Engraving made with the burr of a needle's incision, creating a picture with soft, velvety lines (not hard like previous two)
- In sculpture: Exaggerated forms, visual drama, excess, theatricality. Dynamic movement and energy of human forms, spiralling around empty vortex or reaching out into space. Multiple views from a single form. Temporal narrative: Encounter, struggle, outcome all suggested. Narratives of transformation in Bernini.
- Less emphasis on Michelangelo's monumentality.