psych final

  1. Emphasis on learning
  2. No human nature- people are influenced by what happens to them
  3. Anti-mentalism
  4. Didn’t focus on Unscientific- desires, wishes, goals, beliefs, emotions ect
  5. Scientific- observables- stimulus, response, environment ect
  6. No differences across species
  7. It was anti-freud- he was getting too radical
  8. People liked to think that if they changed the environment of troubled people everything would get better
  9. Did many studies on rats and pigeons- could apply them to humans
  10. 3. learning principles that are said to explain
    habituation, classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning
  11. habituation
    • 1 of 3 principles that are said to explain everything.
    • It explains that there is a decline in response to stimuli that are repeatedly encountered- ppl get used to everything eventually
    • Noise, ticking, trains, ect
    • It is used as mechanism for directing attention to new stimuli
  12. classical conditioning
    • 1 of 3 principles that are said to explain everything It is- association of one stimulus with another stimulus
    • Experiment where dog salivates when people walk in room
    • 2 kinds of reflexes/responses
    • 1. Unconditioned- non experienced dependent (innate response)
    • foodà salivate

    • 2. Conditioned/conditional- Experience dependent (learned) response
    • Dog salivates when bell rings after ringing it when feeding it

    • reinforced trails vs. unreinforced trials- get food sometimes
    • experimental extinction, reconditioning, spontaneous recover
  13. When ones own behavior becomes associated with a positive or negative stimulus. This changes the frequency of ones subsequent behaviors
  14. Learning what works and doesnt
  15. Touching stove for 1st time
  16. More voluntary than classical conditioning
  17. Kaw if effect
  18. Actions which precede intrinsically- rewarding stimuli will b more likely repeated
  19. Stimuli may be intrinsically rewarding, or conditioned to be so
  20. Reinforcement- increases the future probability of a behavior
  21. Reinforces
  22. Punishment- decreases
  23. how to train a pig
    • 1. positive reinforcement- stimulus added to make a behavior more likely to occur
    • 2. Negative reinforcement- by removing something, making a behavior more likely to occur (pig runs into button so loud music gets turned off)

    3. Making a behavior less likely to happen by doing something- shock a pig when they attacka
  24. pupil
    adjustable opening to the eye
  25. iris
    colored structure on the surface of the eye surrounding the pupil
  26. retina
    layer of visual receptors covering the back surface of the eyeball
  27. cornea
    rigid transparent structure on the outer surface of the eyebal
  28. lens
    flexable structure that can vary in thickness, enabling eyes to adjust to something in distance
  29. fovea
    central area of human retina. adapted for highly detailed vision
  30. cones
    • Adapted for color vision, daytime vision, detailed vision
    • Fovea consists only of cones
  31. rods
    night vision
  32. transduction
    where light is converted into electrochemical nerve impulses in rods and cones
  33. binocular depth cues
    Properties of the visual system that facilitate depth perception by the nature of messages that are sent to the brain.
  34. monocular disparity
    inherent ambiguity between size and distance
  35. problem- size and distance
    vusual system has to deal with the fact that objects differin how much of the retina they hit (how big they appear), depending on how far away they are

    • Distance affects percieved size, but not the actual dize
    • use linear perspective
  36. levin and simons
    discovered the brain is no exactly interpreting what it is seeing
  37. types of memory
    • free recal- produce a response
    • Cued recal- recieve a hint
    • Recognition- choose the correct item among several options
  38. chunking
    grouping items into meaningful sequences or clusters
  39. primacy effect
    tendency to remember wel the first items
  40. recency effect
    tendency to remember the final items
  41. level of processing principle
    how easily you retrieve a memory depends on the number and types of associations
  42. encodin specificity principle
    the associations you form at the time of learning will be the most effective retrieval cues later
  43. mnemonic device
    any memory aide that relies on encoding each item in a specific way
  44. method of loci
    • mnemonic device.
    • memorize a series of places, and then you use a vivid image to associate each location with somehting you want to remember
  45. retrograde amnesia
    loss of memory for events that occured shortly before brain damage
  46. anterograde amnesia
    inability to store new long term memories

    HM- accident caused him to constantly lose memory
  47. Korsakoff's syndrome
    • condition caused by a prolonged deficiency of vitamin B, usually as a result of chronic alcoholism.
    • prefrontal cortex damage from stroke or head trauma
  48. elizabeth loftus
    expert on human memory
  49. confabulations
    • attempts to fill in the gaps of memory
    • patients with prefrontal cortex damage
  50. conditional reflex
    learned- dog salivating
  51. classical conditioning
    the process by which an organism learns a new association between 2 stimuli- a neutral stimulus and one that akready evokes a reflexive response
  52. unconditioned stimulus
    event that automatically elicits an unconditioned response
  53. unconditioned response
    action that the unconditioned stimulus elicits
  54. conditioned response
Card Set
psych final
psych final