Principles of Biology

  1. evolution
    The genetic changes in a population over generations.
  2. natural selection
    A process where some individuals of a population have genetically based traits that cause them to better survive and produce more offspring than other individuals.
  3. cell
    A basic unit of living matter separated from its environment by a plasma membrane. Cells are the fundamental structural untis of life.
  4. prokaryotic cell
    Lacks a nucleus and other mebranne-enclosed organelles. Found only in bacteria and archaea.
  5. eukaryotic cell
    Has a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles. All organisms except bacteria and archaea are composed of eukaryotic cells.
  6. protist
    single-celled eukaryotic organisms, eg amoeba and protozoans
    • Movement: eg locomotion of turning leaves towards the sun.
    • Respiration: converting food into stored chemical energy.
    • Sensitivity to stimuli: any action that occurs as a result of a change in the local environment.
    • Growth: by assimilating materials from food.
    • Reproduction: sexually (by combination of two gametes), or asexually (eg tapeworm/budding, plants/runners)
    • Excretion: mainly CO2.
    • Nutrition: utilise energy.
  8. Alexander Oparin
    • 1920s. First put forward the hypothesis that conditions on early Earth could have generated organic molecules.
    • Note: Miller later confirmed this hypothesis (1953).
  9. Miller-Urey experiment
    • Proved that complex organic molecules can form spontaneously under conditions that probably existed on the early earth.
    • Demonstrated the kinds of molecules that could have been produced on the early earth.
  10. Sort the following from oldest to most recent:
    a) prokaryotic cells
    b) eukaryotic cells
    c) multicellularity
    d) photosynthesis
    a, d, b, c (check)
  11. What were sources of energy on the early Earth?
    • Lightening
    • UV radiation
    • volcanic eruptions
Card Set
Principles of Biology