A sixth grader who is advanced in most areas of reading has difficulty completing assigned reading selections. He appears motivated when he begins reading, but he has difficulty keeping his attention on the task at hand. Which of the following would be his teacher's best initial strategy for addressing this difficulty?
breaking down the student's reading assignments into small steps and helping him learn to monitor his own attention and progres
When creating lesson plans to promote specific reading skills, a teacher should make sure that:
the targeted reading skills relate to an appropriate instructional progression and reflect students' needs
An early elementary teacher could most effectively support at-home reading by:
recommending books that parents/guardians would likely enjoy reading with their children
A sixth-grade teacher wants to ensure that the classroom reading environment supports content-area learning for the English Learners in the class. Which of the following strategies is likely to be most effective in addressing this objective?
making available in the classroom content-area texts at various levels that supplement and reinforce the information presented in students' textbook
Of the following questions, which would be most important for a teacher to consider when interpreting the results of a reading assessment for a particular student?
How do these findings relate to the student's performance on other recently administered reading assessments
A fourth-grade class includes two students with Individualized Education Programs(IEPs). When planning classroom entry level and progress-monitoring assessmentsfor these students, the teacher should:
consult each student's IEP to determine any specific testing accommodations required for that student
A middle school teacher is preparing for the class to take the sixth-grade CaliforniaStandards Test (CST) in English-language arts. The teacher believes that a student in the class with a Section 504 Plan would perform significantly better on the assessment if she were allowed to have frequent supervised breaks within sections of the test. Which of the following guidelines would be most important for the teacher to follow to ensure that arrangements for this student during the test are appropriate
providing the student with this testing accommodation only if it is specified in her Section 504 Plan
Midway through the year, a second-grade teacher convenes a student success team to plan additional support for a student who is performing somewhat below grade-level standards in reading. Other members of the team include the student and her parents, another teacher who works closely with the student, and a school administrator. In the context of developing an improvement plan for the student, which of the following pieces of information would be most importantfor the teacher to communicate to the success team?
a description of the student's assessed strengths and weaknesses that could serve as a foundation for addressing her needs
A kindergarten teacher plays the following game with students. The teacher says,"Guess whose name I'm going to say now?" The teacher then says the initial sound of a student's name (e.g., /m/ for Mariko), and the children try to guess the name. This activity is likely to promote the reading development of students primarily by helping them:
recognize that a spoken word is made up of sounds.
Which of the following informal assessments would be most appropriate to use to assess an individual student's phonemic awareness?
asking the student to identify thes ound at the beginning, middle, or end of a spoken word (e.g., "What sound do you hear at the end of step?")
A kindergarten teacher is preparing astudent for a phonemic awareness assessment.
Teacher: What is this a picture of? [The teacher displays apicture of a boat.]
Student: A boat?
Teacher: A boat, that's right. Now let's say the word boat together very slowly:/b/.../ō/.../t/. [The studentpronounces the word with the teacher.]
Teacher: How many sounds do you hear? /b/.../ō/.../t/ . . . [The teacher slowly repeats the word.]
Teacher: That's right, three. Now, I'd like you to do this for some more words.
This assessment would be an appropriateway to test the student's ability to perform which of the following phonemic awareness tasks?
recognizing how many phoneme sare contained in a word
The use of rhyming texts for kindergarten read-alouds is likely to promote the reading development of kindergarten students primarily by:
fostering their phonological awareness.
Which of the following strategies would best help a kindergarten student who is having difficulty visually distinguishing between the letters b and d?
helping the student focus on the directionality of each letter as the student traces it
A first grader can identify the letters of the alphabet and decode a number of simple words. He becomes confused, however, when tracking print in consecutive lines of print. Which of the following strategiesis likely to be most effective in helping the student read a short paragraph of simple text?
Have him use his finger or a marker as he reads the text
Which of the following instructional practices would be most effective in promoting kindergarten students' understanding of the alphabetic principle?
routinely saying the sounds in words when writing the words on the board
An emergent reader frequently reverses some letters and numbers during writing tasks. Which of the following strategies would be most effective in helping this student develop more accurate letter formation skills?
having the student practice tracing the target letter shapes with a finger while saying aloud the sequence of steps to form each letter
In the word chimpanzee, which of the following pairs of letters is a digraph?
A kindergarten student has demonstrated the ability to write words phonetically, but she is reluctant to write because she is worried about misspelling words. The teacher could best promote the student's reading and writing development by:
reassuring her that it is okay for now to express herself in writing by spelling words as they sound.
During which of the following stages of spelling development do students typically begin to show an understanding of the correspondence between letters and sounds?
Function words such as to, the, and of are most appropriately taught in the context of which of the following areas of reading instruction?
A first-grade teacher provides students with explicit, systematic phonics instruction to promote their reading development. When designing activities to teach letter-sound correspondences, the teacher should:
provide reading opportunities for students to practice sounds in context after studying the sounds in isolation.
Early in the school year, a first-grade teacher wants to conduct an assessment of students' ability to read grade appropriate words, including phonetically regular words and high-frequency irregular sight words. Which of the following informal assessments would be most appropriate and effective for this purpose?
The teacher prepares a list of grade-appropriate words, asks each student to try reading the words aloud, and records the results.
Several first graders have mastered sounding out and blending words that follow simple short-vowel phonics patterns. Their teacher would like to help them begin to develop whole-word reading (i.e., automatic word recognition) of words that follow these patterns. Which of the following instructional approaches would be most effective for this purpose?
providing modeling and guided student practice sounding out simple, regular words subvocally and then reading them aloud normally
When reading aloud texts, a second-grade English Learner often makes errors in pronunciation that are unrelated to her ability to accurately decode the words. The teacher's best response would be to:
analyze the student's pronunciation patterns and plan an intervention to address difficulties that may affect her reading comprehension.
Which of the following approaches would be most effective in helping first-grade students who have the prerequisitede coding skills learn to decode words that end in the inflectional morpheme -ing?
explicitly teaching the students to read the unit -ing in isolation before teaching them to decode familiar words that end in the inflection
An eighth-grade teacher wants to help students improve their spelling of scientific vocabulary, including the terms listed below.
Which of the following instructional strategies is likely to be most effective for this purpose?
familiarizing students with the spelling and meaning of Greek morphemes in scientific terms
A sixth-grade teacher observes that several students have misspelled the word pasteurize. After writing pasteurize and Louis Pasteur on the board, the teacher explains how Pasteur invented the processof pasteurization. Students then discuss how the word Pasteur relates to the word pasteurize. This instructional activity fosters students' reading and writing development primarily by:
helping them learn to use etymology to improve spelling and decoding of multisyllabic words.
A third-grade student who is an advanced learner has already demonstrated mastery of the derivational suffixes -ness and -ment, which will be the focus of an upcoming whole-class decoding and spelling lesson. Which of the following strategies for differentiating instruction for this lesson would be most appropriate for this student
introducing the student to higher level derivational suffixes
Which of the following word pairs are homophones?
sight and site
A second-grade teacher would like to include independent silent reading as one of several approaches used to promote students' fluency development. When planning differentiated fluency instruction for individual students in the class, the teacher should keep in mind that using independent silent reading to promote fluency:
should be limited to students who have already acquired automaticity
A fourth-grade student who reads grade level narrative texts with fluency and excellent comprehension is struggling to read aloud a grade-level content-area passage about a topic with which the student is familiar. The student reads the passage hesitantly, frequently stopping to reread clauses or entire sentences. Afterward, the student demonstrates limited comprehension of what was read.Which of the following factors is most likely disrupting the student's fluent reading of this text?
lack of experience with the academic-language structures used in the text
Which of the following instructional activities would best help upper elementary English Learners develop intonations and rhythms of the English language to support fluent reading?
giving an expressive oral reading of a short text, then having the students echo read the text as the teacher reads it aloud again
A second-grade teacher would like to plan an activity to improve the reading rate of two students who read at about the same rate and level and are both automatic readers. Which of the following activities would best address the students' needs?
a cooperative silent reading activity, in which the students read the same passage together silently, stopping periodically to share their understanding of the text
A second grader has demonstrated the ability to decode individual words accurately, but she reads very slowly and laboriously. When the teacher tries to engage the student in oral reading activities, she says she feels "embarrassed" and would rather read silently. Which of the following modifications to instruction would be most appropriate and effective for helping this student improve her reading fluency?
having her reread a text several times using whisper reading to build her fluency and confidence with respect to the text
Based on the student's reading performance on this (not listed here) assessment, instruction to increase the student's reading fluency should focus primarily on:
promoting the student's automatic word recognition.
When reading the last sentence of the passage, the student pronounces the word imagine as [ĭm mā' jīn]. Evidence from this assessment best supports which of the following interpretations of this word reading error?
The student applies syllabication and phonics rules correctly but does not recognize the word.
Lately, when choosing a book to read, a third grader who reads at grade level always selects books from a series that is written in a very formulaic style that does little to extend his conceptual or language development. The teacher's best response to this behavior would be to:
provide the student with books with similar themes or on similar topics that are more challenging for him.
A second-grade student has limited vocabulary knowledge, which hinders the student's word recognition and reading comprehension. The student's oral reading is slow and labored, and the student typically spends the majority of independent reading time browsing through books, making little effort to read the actual words on the page. Research has shown that which of the following is most likely to happen if this student receives no instructional intervention?
The student will begin to fall behind peers in reading development and will continue to fall further behind in later grades as texts include increasingly difficult vocabulary
Which of the following statements best explains an important limitation of teaching students to rely on context as their primary strategy for determining the meaning of unfamiliar words in texts?
Explicit context clues about a word's meaning are not very common in most texts, while implicit contextual clues often require students to apply background knowledge they lack.
A fifth-grade teacher is planning a multi disciplinary unit on water pollution. For this unit, students will read chapters from their social studies and science textbooks as well as relevant fictional narratives. These materials will also be incorporated into a variety of instructional activities designed to promote students' reading development. Which of the following statements best describes an important advantage of using a crosscurricular approach such as this unit to promote students' reading development?
Reading instruction that integrates a variety of related texts promotes deep processing of new vocabulary through multiple exposures to keywords and concepts.
A middle school teacher writes the morpheme dict on the board, pronounces it, and explains that dict derives from the Latin word for "speak."
The teacher then asks students if they can think of English words that start with or include dict. The teacher uses the students' suggestions to create the diagram shown below..
This activity is likely to promote students' vocabulary development primarily by helping the students:
apply knowledge of word roots as a word-learning strategy.
A teacher substitutes blank spaces for several nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in an appropriate level text and asks students to determine reasonable and logical words to complete each blank. This technique is useful as an informal assessment of students' understanding of English language structures primarily because it requires them to:
select appropriate words based on their grammatical function as well as on their meaning.
A fifth-grade teacher gives students the following sentence:
Neither walking on the beach nor running around the track cheered Ahmed up.
The teacher asks the students how the phrases that come just after neither and just after nor are similar. This exercise can promote students' reading comprehension by helping them:
recognize parallel grammatical structures.
A middle school teacher designs an instructional activity in which students combine several sentences to form a single sentence, as illustrated below.
Combine: Matthew stood and waited for the bus. The sun was blazing hot. Matthew fanned himself with the newspaper.
Single sentence: Waiting for the bus, Matthew stood in the blazing sun, fanning himself with the newspaper. This activity is likely to be most effective in helping students:
strengthen their ability to comprehend and write complex sentences.
Structural analysis would be the most appropriate strategy for a student to use to determine the meaning of which of the following words?
A sixth-grade teacher reads his students the nonsense poem "Jabberwocky" by Lewis Carroll. The first four lines of the poem are shown below.
'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;
All mimsy were the borogoves,
And the mome raths outgrabe
The teacher reads aloud the clause "Allmimsy were the borogoves" and asks students what that might mean. One student responds, "It means that the borogoves were all mimsy!" This student's response demonstrates skillin which of the following reading comprehension strategies?
interpreting unusual grammatical constructions
The teacher plans a variety of activities related to "Jabberwocky."Students will work in pairs to make up definitions for some of the nonsense words (e.g., slithy). They will read the poem aloud using tone of voice to express various moods. Finally, they will create their own nonsense poems and give oralreadings of them. These activities aremost likely to promote students' reading development by:
fostering students' enjoyment of playing with and thinking about language.
One student pronounces gyre with a hard g sound, while his classmate uses a soft g sound. They ask the teacher who is correct. The teacher's best response would be to:
explain that one strategy for determining a likely pronunciation of a new word is to consider other words that contain a similar root (e.g., gyrate, gyroscope).
The teacher asks the students if they can tell which of the nonsense words in the poem are nouns. One student says that toves is a noun. Another says that wabe and borogoves are nouns and adds that gyre and gimble are verbs. The class then discusses how students were able to draw these conclusions. This exercise would be especially useful for helping students understand that:
being familiar with common language structures can help a reader interpret a text.
A sixth-grade class that includes several English Learners has been studying volcanoes. The teacher designs the following paragraph-building activity as part of a chapter review toward the end of the unit.
Step 1: The teacher leads a brief whole-class discussion reviewing key topics covered by the textbook chapter. Step 2: Students form heterogeneous cooperative learning groups with three or four students in each group. Each of the students selects one of the key topics reviewed during the discussion.
Step 3: Individual students write one or two sentences about their topic on sentence strips.
Step 4: The members of the group then decide how to put the various sentences together, editing the sentences as necessary to form a comprehensible paragraph about the chapter and correcting any errors in grammar or spelling.
After participating in this activity, all of the students review the chapter in their science text about volcanoes.
The paragraph-building activity described is likely to promote students' reading development primarily by helping them:
transfer skills from oral language to written language.
After assessing the effectiveness of this activity, the teacher decides to include an additional step.
For step 5, the teacherwill guide students to develop topics entences for the paragraphs they generated. This modification is most likely to promote students' reading development by:
helping students recognize main ideas and how supporting details relate to main ideas
Which of the following best describes one important way in which this activity is likely to benefit English Learners?
Discussing and writing about a content-area topic support English Learners' reading related to the topic by reinforcing key concepts and academic-language development.
To promote students' comprehension of a passage about comets and meteoroids, a middle school teacher shows the students how to use facts from the text to complete the following Venn diagram. This comprehension strategy is most effective in facilitating students' ability to:
organize textual information according to similarities and differences.
An eighth-grade class will be reading a drama that is a challenging grade-level text. The teacher is concerned that a student in the class who has a reading disability will have difficulty keeping up with and understanding the reading assignments. Which of the following strategies would be most effective for the teacher to use to promote the student's access to the text and his ability to participate fully in class discussions related to it?
providing the student with an audiorecording of the play to listen to in conjunction with his reading
A first-grade teacher plans to assess a student's comprehension of a short story through oral retelling. After the student silently reads the story, the teacher will prompt the student's retelling by asking open-ended questions. To prepare for this assessment, the teacher reads the story carefully and composes the questions. Which of the following additional steps would be most helpful for the teacher to take before the retelling activity begins?
Prepare a checklist of the key elements that an effective retelling of this story should include.
A fifth-grade teacher is teaching a unit on fiction. To begin, students read several simple fairy tales and discuss the moral or meaning of each one. The teacher then assigns a more complex story and leads a discussion about the moral of the story after students finish reading it. Thisinstructional strategy is most likely to promote students' reading proficiency by:
helping students identify and understand the theme of a literary text.
A third-grade teacher prepares several poster-sized copies of the star diagram. After reading an assigned story, students divide into small groups, and the teacher distributes a copy of the star diagram to each group. The members of each group discuss how the six questions (who, what,when, where, why, and how) apply to the story and write answers in the six points of the star. The teacher then displays the completed star diagrams and leads a whole-class discussion about them. This instructional activity is most likely to promote students' reading proficiency in which of the following ways?
helping students learn a strategy for using visual representation to analyze key elements of a text
A sixth-grade teacher has students read a short expository text. After the students finish reading the text, the teacher uses guided discussion to help them complete the form shown below.
Topic of the text:
Author's thesis about the topic:
Evidence presented by the author:
Is this evidence factual and/or reasonable?
This writing activity promotes students'comprehension and analysis of expositorytexts primarily by:
developing their ability to evaluate the adequacy of an author's conclusions.
Creating such a web is likely to promote students' ability to retain and use information they read about a topic by
helping students learn to use categories to organize their thinking about the topic.
After giving each student a copy of the web developed by the class, the teacher could best help students make use of the web to learn and retain facts from their reading by asking them to:
add continuously to the web as they encounter and analyze new information in their reading.