A central database of computers, users, shared printers, shared folders, other network resources, and resource groupings that used to manage a netowrk and enable users to quickly find a particular resource.
- Class A addresses are assigned to networks with a very large number of hosts.
- Class B addresses are assigned to medium-sized to large-sized networks.
- Class C addresses are used for small networks.
- Class D addresses are reserved for IP multicast addresses.
ARP (address resolution prtocol)
A protocol in the TCP/IP suite that enables a sending station to determine the MAC or physical address of another station on a network.
Binary to Decimal
- 10110011 to decimal
- 128 + 0 + 32 + 16 + 0 + 0 + 2 + 0
- = 179
BIOS (Basic input output systems)
A program on a read only or flash memory chip that establishes basic communication with components such as the monitor and disk drives. The advantage of a flash chip is that you can update the BIOS.
The act of cloning the os to prevent damage when testing new software.
You are designing an infrastructure tier upon which an application will be deployed. Your operational requirements include availability or performance capabilities that cannot be met because either performance bottlenecks or single points of failure exist in your infrastructure.
Command line FTP
get, put, ftp **IP address**, and the like.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
A form of DNS that enables client computers to update DNS registration information so that this does not have to be done manually. DDNS is often used with DHCP servers to automatically register IP addresses on a DNS server.
DNS (Domain Name System)
Also called DOmain Name Service, a TCP/IP application protocol that enables a DNS server to resolve (translate) domain and computer names to IP addresses, IP addresses to domain and computer names.
A groupding of resource objects-- forexample, servers, computers, and user accounts-- to enable easier centrilaized manegment of these objects. On Windwos Server 2008 networks, a domain is contained within active directory as a higher-level representation of how a business, school, or government agency is organized.
DC (Domain Controller)
A Windows Server 2003 or 2008 server that contains a full copy of the active directory information, is used to add a new object to Active Directory, and replicates all changes made to it so the changes are updated on ever DC in the same Domain.
A grouping of active directory trees that each have continguous namespaces within their own domain structure, but that have disjointed namespaces btween trees. The trees and theur domains use the same schema and global catalog.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host to another host over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet.
A repository for all objects and the most frequently used attributes for each object in all domains. Each forest has a single gloabal catalog that can be replicated onto mulitple servers.
A host ID (or hostid) is an identifier unique to a particular computer.
Host-only networking provides a network connection between the virtual machine and the host computer, using a virtual Ethernet adapter that is visible to the host operating system. This approach can be very useful if you need to set up an isolated virtual network.
IIS (Internet Information Services)
A Microsoft Windows Server component that provides Internet, Web, FTP, Mail, and other services to make the server into a full featured web server.
IP (Internet Protocol)
The internet layer protocol responsible for addressing packets so that they are delivered on the local network or across routers to other networks or subnets.
MAC (Media Access Control) address
Also called a physical or device address, the hexadecimal number permanently assigned to a network interface, and used by the MAC sublayer (a communications sublayer for controlling how computers share communications on the same network).
NAT (Network address translation)
Used by Microsoft Routing and Remote Access Services and by firewalls, NAT tranlates IP addresses on an internal or local network so that the actual IP addresses cannot be determined on the internet, because the address seen on the internet is a decoy address.
OU (Organization Unit)
A grouping of objects within a domain that provides a means to establish specific policies for governming those objects, and that enables object managment to be delegated.
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model
- The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection effort at the International Organization for Standardization. It is a prescription of characterizing and standardizing the functions of a communications system in terms of abstraction layers.
- Layer 1: physical layer
- The physical layer defines electrical and physical specifications for devices.
- Layer 2: data link layer
- The data link layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the physical layer.
- Layer 3: network layer
- The network layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source host on one network to a destination host on a different network, while maintaining the quality of service requested by the transport layer (in contrast to the data link layer which connects hosts within the same network).
- Layer 4: transport layer
- The transport layer provides transparent transfer of data between end users, providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers.
- Layer 5: session layer
- The session layer controls the dialogues (connections) between computers. It establishes, manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application.
- Layer 6: presentation layer
- The presentation layer establishes context between application-layer entities, in which the higher-layer entities may use different syntax and semantics if the presentation service provides a mapping between them. If a mapping is available, presentation service data units are encapsulated into session protocol data units, and passed down the stack.
- Layer 7: application layer
- The application layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user, which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application.
Ping (packet internet groper) is a computer network administration utility used to test the reachability of a host on an Internet Protocol (IP) network and to measure the round-trip time for messages sent from the originating host to a destination computer. The name comes from active sonarterminology which sends a pulse of sound and listens for the echo.
Regedt32.exe is the configuration editor for Windows NT. It is used to modify the Windows NT configuration database, or the Windows NT registry. This editor allows you to view or modify the Windows NT registry.
A database used to store information about the configuration, program setup, devices, drivers, and other data important to the setup of Windows operating systems, such as Windwos Server 2008.
A Registry backup is made so that you can undo any changes made to the registry if the changes harm the computer. It is always wise to make a backup of the registry.
Registry Subtrees or subkey's
A key within a registry key similar to a subfolder within a folder.
A subnet (short for "subnetwork") is an identifiably separate part of an organization's network. Typically, a subnet may represent all the machines at one geographic location, in one building, or on the same local area network (LAN).
TCP (Transmission control protocol)
This transport protocol, which is part of the TCP/IP suite, establishes communication sessions between networked software applications proccesses and provides for reliable end-to-end delivery of data by controlling data flow.
A domain relationship in which both domains are trsuted and trusting, enabling one to have access to objects in the other.
Related domains that use a contiguous namespace, share the same shcema, and have two-way transitive trust relationships.
Software that enables one computer to run two or more operating systems that are live at the same time and in which one application running in one operating system does not interfere with an application running in a different operating system.
Disk Storage allocated to link with phisical RAM to temporarily hold data when there is not enough free RAM.
The Apache HTTP Server, commonly referred to as Apache is web server software notable for playing a key role in the initial growth of the World Wide Web.
Bourne Again Shell
Bash is a Unix shell written by Brian Fox for the GNU Project as a free software replacement for theBourne shell (sh). Released in 1989, it has been distributed widely as the shell for the GNU operating system and as the default shell on Linux, Mac OS X and Darwin.
The chmod command (abbreviated from change mode) is a Unix command that lets a user tell the system how much (or little) access it should permit to a file. It changes the file system modes of files and directories. The modes include permissions and special modes. It is also a C languagefunction in Unix and Unix-like environments.
A tool that allows you to promote or demote a DC giving it more or less roles.
The ablity of software to operate on multiple platforms and still comunicate which each other.
In computing, the kernel (from German Kern, nucleus, core) is the main component of most computer operating systems; it is a bridge between applications and the actual data processing done at the hardware level.
Linux editors such as VM and gEdit allow a user to build scripts for thier linux machine as well as write text documents.
Depending on the class of the address A, B, C, D, the network ID will encompass anywhere from the last octet in the adress to the first 3 octets of the address.
nslookup is a network administration command-line tool available for many computer operating systems for querying the Domain Name System (DNS) to obtain domain name or IP address mapping or for any other specific DNS record.
NTFS (New Technology File System) is the standard file system of Windows NT, including Windows 2000, Windows XP, and all their successors to date.NTFS supersedes the FAT file system as the preferred file system for Microsoft’s Windows operating systems.
passwd is a tool on most Unix and Unix-like operating systems used to change a user's password. The password entered by the user is run through a key derivation function to create a hashed version of the new password, which is saved.
The full length destination address of the file in a file system example:
/root/etc/rcd.1/blah blah blah
In Unix-like and some other operating systems, the pwd command (print working directory) is used to output the path of the current working directory.
root is the user name or account that by default has access to all commands and fileson a Linux or other Unix-like operating system. It is also referred to as the root account, root user and the superuser.
Samba is a free software re-implementation of the SMB/CIFS networking protocol, originally developed by Andrew Tridgell. As of version 3, Samba provides file and print services for various Microsoft Windows clients and can integrate with aWindows Server domain, either as a Primary Domain Controller (PDC) or as a domain member. It can also be part of an Active Directory domain.
The Microsoft Active Directory schema contains formal definitions of every object class that can be created in an Active Directory forest. The schema also contains formal definitions of every attribute that can exist in an Active Directory object.
A shell is a piece of software that provides an interface for users of an operating system which provides access to the services of a kernel.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an "Internet-standard protocol for managing devices on IP networks. Devices that typically support SNMP include routers, switches, servers, workstations, printers, modem racks, and more
Telnet is a network protocol used on the Internet or local area networks to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communications facility using a virtual terminal connection. User data is interspersed in-band with Telnet control information in an 8-bit byte oriented data connection over theTransmission Control Protocol (TCP).
Webmin is a web-based system configuration tool for Unix-like systems, although recent versions can also be installed and run on Windows. With it, it is possible to configure operating system internals, such as users, disk quotas, services or configuration files, as well as modify and control open source apps, such as the Apache HTTP Server, PHP or MySQL.