oceanography test 1

The flashcards below were created by user bbrooks1983 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. atmosphere
  2. lithosphere
  3. hydrsphere
  4. biosphere
  5. scientific method steps
    observe phenomena, formulate a hypothesis, design an experiment, predict the outcome, conduct the experiment, draw conclusions.
  6. how many planets in our solar system
  7. maximum relief
    highest point to lowest point
  8. great circles
    bisect sphere and pass through the center, identify shortest distance between 2 spots
  9. latitudes
    angled north and south of the equator(run east to west),
  10. 7 important latitude lines
    tropic of cancer(n) and capricorn(s) at 23.5*, equator at 0*, north and south pole at 90*, arctic(n) and antarctic circles at 66.5
  11. longitude
    angled east and west of the poles(runs north and south)
  12. prime meridian
    0* longitude runs through greenwich england
  13. aphelion
    furthest point from the sun, northern hemisphere winter
  14. perihelion
    closest point to the sun, northern hemisphere summer
  15. plane of the eliptical
    is the plane at which the earth orbits, titlted at 23.5*, not parallel with equatorial lines
  16. parallelism
    causes the north pole to always point towards the north star
  17. june solstice
    june 22, sun directly overhead at 23.5 n latitude, antarctic circle(south) in darkness 24 hours, start of summer in northern hemisphere
  18. december solstice
    dec 22, sun is directly overhead at 23.5 s latitude, arctic circle(north) in 24 hour darkness, start of winter in northern hemisphere
  19. equinoxes
    happen on march 21 and september 21 every year, day length is 12 hours worlwide(equinox), sun is directly overhead at the equator
  20. am/pm
    ante-meridian and post-meridian
  21. isolines
    lines that connect points of equal data
  22. maps 4 key features
    size, shape, distance, direction
  23. scale
    the relationship between area on map and area on earth-- the larger the amount of area portrayed the smaller the scale
  24. 3 types of scale
    graphical(common), fractional, verbal
  25. conformal map
    squares are perfect no curve
  26. equivalent map
    curved angles circular edges
  27. cylindrical projections
    wrap earth in a cylinder of paper
  28. plane projections
    project globe on to paper that is tangent at some point, shows on one hemisphere
  29. comic projections
    project map onto a cone, good for small areas
  30. psuedocylindrical projections
    most common, mix of conformal and equivalent, oval shape
  31. interrupted projections
    good for land projections cuts off ocean
  32. contouring
    adds isolines to seperate common traits on a map
  33. topographic map
    shows elevation, closer the lines the more elevation change
  34. WAAS
    wide area augmentation system
  35. CORS
    continuously operated gps reference stations
  36. remote sensing
    measurement by device not in contact with earth--arial photography, orthophoto maps, visable light and infrared light(IR) scanning, thermal, radar and sonar......
  37. orthophoto maps
    photo maps that show color and are undistorted, usueful in low lying coastal areas to show marsh
  38. visible light and (IR) scanning
    shows false color
  39. radar imagery
    usueful in identifying atmosphereic moisture
  40. sonar imagery
    underwater imaging using sound
  41. thermal(IR) scanning
    shows images based on heat
  42. GIS
    geographic information systems, layers of data used in mapping, requires high-powered computers
  43. earths oceans
    atlantic, pacific, indian, arctic, antarctic
  44. the seven seas
    red,mediteranean,persiangulf, black, abriatic, caspian, indian ocean
  45. thor heyerdahl
    blasa raft- the kon tiki, to demonstrate migration of south americans to pacific islands
  46. pheonecians
    first from western hemisphere to develope navigational charts. first to circumnavigate africa
  47. vikings
    settled iceland and greenland, leif ericson went on scientific voyages and settled canada at new finland
  48. magellan
    first to circumnavigate globe, killed in pacififc island
  49. james cook
    3 scientific voyages,endeavor, resolution, adventure. mapped islands in pacific, measured ocean charactoristics
  50. nebula
    cloud of gas and dust-gravity causes to compact and rotate forming eddies then protoplanets then planets
  51. crust
    low density, many silicate materials
  52. mantle
    mainly iron and magnesium
  53. core
    high density iron and nickle
  54. lithosphere
    crust and upper mantle, 60 miles thick
  55. asthenosphere
    hot plastic, flows with high viscosity, 430 miles deep
  56. layers of physical properties
    lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere, outer and inner core
  57. outgassing
    water vapor, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, formed original oceans
  58. heterotrophs
    earliest life, relied on outside food source
  59. autotrophs
    later forms of life, produced own food, anaerobic, developed chorophyll used for photosynthesis
  60. great oxidation event
    2.45 billion years ago,increased oxygen and ozone, eliminated anaerobic life
  61. cenozoic era
    present to 65.5 billion years ago,
  62. mesozoic era
    251 billion years ago to 65.5
  63. paleozoic era
    542 to 251 billion years
  64. proterzoic
    630 to 542 billion years
  65. alfred wegener
    proposed pangea
  66. continental drift evidence
    matching rock and mountain formations, glacial evidence, plant and animals fossils found seperat continents, magnetic polarity changes recorded..paleomagnetism..
  67. mid ocean ridge
    spreading center where heat breaks through ocean floor
  68. subduction zones
    where two crust collide with the lighter one rising, does not occur during continent to continent convergence
  69. types of plate boundries
    divergent moving away like mid- atlantic and rift valley, convergent moving towards like andes, himalayas, alps, transform side by side like san andreas and alpine fault
  70. john tuzo wilson
    life cycle of ocean basins, formation, growth, destruction
Card Set
oceanography test 1
oceanagraphy citrus college
Show Answers