Path MT II

  1. What clinical signs are seen in animals affected by congenital dyshormonogenetic goiter?
    • Subnormal growth rates
    • Sparse hair coat
    • Myxedema
    • Weakness
    • Sluggish behavior
  2. What type of neoplasm of the thyroid gland appears as white to tan, small, well demarcated solid nodules or cysts, usually single and encapsulated (movable under skin)?
    Follicular cell adenoma
  3. In which animal is follicular cell adenoma of the thyroid gland common?
  4. What neoplasm of the thyroid gland is typically multinodular, grows rapidly and invades tissues, metastasize early to the lungs and is in a "fixed" position?
    Follicular cell carcinoma
  5. In what breeds of dogs is follicular cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland common?
    • Beagles
    • Boxers
    • Golden Retrievers
  6. Hyperthyroidism in aged cats is mostly associated with what?
    • Adenomas
    • Multinodular hyperplasia
  7. Hyperthyroidism in dogs is usually associated with what?
    Thyroid neoplasms
  8. What clinical signs are associated with hyperthyroidism?
    • Increased serum T4 and T3
    • Increased serum ALT, AST, and AP
    • Restlessness, weight loss
    • PU/PD
    • Weakness and fatigue
    • Cervical swelling, coughing, dyspnea
    • 2nd hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  9. What is the possible etiology behind hypothyroidism?
    • Idiopathic follicular collapse/atrophy
    • Lymphocytic thyroiditis
    • Bilateral nonfunctional follicular cell neoplasms
    • Chronic pituitary lesions
  10. What clinical signs are associated with hypothyroidism?
    • Lethargy, weight gain, muscular weakness and slow reflexes
    • Skin lesions
    • Reproductive abnormalities
    • Joint pain and effusion
    • Low plasma bound iodine
    • Hypercholesterolemia
  11. In what animals is hypothyroidism most commonly seen?
    • Dogs
    • Horses
  12. What types of skin lesions are usually seen in hypothyroidism?
    • Hyperkeratosis
    • Bilateral symmetric alopecia
    • Hair cycle (Anagen, Catagen, and Telogen)
    • Follicular keratosis
    • Hyperpigmentation
    • Myxedema
  13. Cows fed a high calcium diet before parturition are likely to develop what condition?
    Parturient paresis (milk fever)
  14. What can primary hyperparathyroidism be due to?
    • Parathyroid hyperplasia
    • Parathyroid adenoma
    • Parathyroid carcinoma
  15. What clinical signs are associated with primary hyperparathyroidism?
    • Hypercalcemia
    • Anorexia
    • Vomiting
    • Constipation
    • PU/PD
    • Weakening of bones
  16. How do you diagnose primary hyperparathyroidism?
    • Total blood calcium and phosphorus
    • Circulating concentrations of parathyroid hormone
  17. In what species do you see secondary hyperparathyroidism because of nutritional imballances?
    • Cats
    • Dogs
    • Horses
    • Nonhuman primates
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  18. What diet will cause secondary hyperparathyroidism in horses?
    High grain/poor roughage or all bran diets
  19. What type of diet will cause secondary hyperparathyroidism in dogs and cats?
    All-meat diets
  20. Secondary hyperparathyroidism because of a nutritional imbalance is usually due to what?
    • Excess phosphorus
    • Normal to low calcium
    • Low vitamin D3
  21. What animals is secondary hyperparathyroidism due to renal disease common in?
    • Dogs
    • Cats
  22. What are the results of secondary hyperparathyroidism (nutritional and renal)?
    • Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of cheif cells
    • Excess PTH (Big head and rubber jaw)
  23. What are some mechanisms behind pseudohyperparathyroidism?
    • Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM)
    • Hypercalcemia induced by metastases of solid neoplasms to bone
    • Hematological malignancies
  24. What humoral factors are seen in humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM)?
    • PTH
    • PTHrP
    • Cytokines
    • Steroids
    • Vitamin D3
    • PGs
  25. What hormone is secreted by Alpha cells in the pancreas?
  26. What processes are started by glucagon?
    • Glycogenolysis
    • Gluconeogenesis
    • Lipolysis
  27. Does glucagon cause an increase or decrease in the ECF?
    Increase in ECF
  28. What hormone is excreted by Beta cells in the pancreas?
  29. What process is initiated by insulin?
    Increased membrane transport of glucose
  30. Does insulin increase or decrease the ECF?
    Decrease in ECF
  31. What hormone is produced in the Delta cells of the pancreas?
  32. What is the action of somatostatin?
    Inhibits release of insulin, glucagon and gastrointestingal peptides
  33. What hormone is produced by F or PP cells in the pancreas?
    Pancreatic polypeptide
  34. What is the action of pancreatic polypeptide?
    Decrease food intake
  35. What type of diabetes is characterized by destruction of beta cells with progressive and eventual loss of insulin secretion?
    Type I Diabetes Mellitus
  36. What type of diabetes is considered insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus?
    Type I Diabetes Mellitus
  37. What type of diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance (genetic) and/or dysfunction of beta cells (gradual loss of insulin secretion)?
    Type II Diabetes Mellitus
  38. Almost all cases of diabetes mellitus in dogs is of what type?
    Type I (more common in females)
  39. What is the pathogenesis behind type I diabetes mellitus in dogs?
    • Destruction of islets
    • Hypoplasia of pancreatic islets
    • Immune destruction of beta cells
  40. What is the pathogenesis of type II diabetes mellitus in cats?
    • Amyloidosis of islets
    • Severe vacuolation of islet beta cells
  41. What type of diabetes mellitus is relatively common in cats?
    Type II diabetes mellitus
  42. What clinical signs are associated with diabetes mellitus?
    • Hyperglycemia and glycosuria
    • PU/PD
    • Increased food consumption
    • Loss of weight
    • Bilateral cataracts
    • Weakness
    • Hepatomegaly
    • Glycogen nephrosis
  43. What type of neoplasm appears as a single mass or as multiple nodules near the base of the heart and usually causes heart failure due to space-occupying nature in the pericardium?
    Aortic body adenomas/carcinomas
  44. What type of neoplasm arises near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery, is usually unilateral and slow growing, and may interfere with swallowing and blood flow?
    Carotid body adenomas/carcinomas
Card Set
Path MT II