a positive or negative evaluation of a particular thing or person
what are strong attitudes comprised of?
- commitment = shields attitude against contradictory information
- embeddedness = connects attitude to other aspects of the self
Components of Theory of Planned Behavior?
atittude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control --> behavioral intention --> behavior
What is the Theory of Planned Behavior used to describe?
the connection b/w attitude and behavior
Three components of Attitude-Behavior Consistency?
- personal relevance
- attitude accessibitily (know what others think)
In what ways are attitudes formed?
- Classical Conditioning
- Operant Conditioning
- Observational learning
Study by Ross, McFarland, and Fletcher:
- hear communication that were favorable or unfavorable toward brushing and bathing
- positive message --> more favorable to bathing and brushing
- negative message --> negative attitude toward bathing and brushing
Article 12 - origins of cognitive dissonance research methods and design:
- assessed childrens preferences of different stickers
- two condition: choice/ no choice
- did study with monkeys and m & ms
What is cognitive dissonance?
ppl feel a tension when they are aware of an inconsistency wither b/w two attitudes or b/w attitude and behavior
What were reasons some of the Ss data had to be discarded?
- indicated in the interview that they were suspicious of having been paid and suspected the real reason of experiment
- Ss told the girl they were hired
- Ss refused to take the money and refused to be hired
- one S demanded her phone number saying he would call her and explain things
What is social identity theory?
- Social identity = a person's sense of who they are based on their group membership
- we categorize = shortcut to knowing other characteristics of a perosn
- we identify = gain self-esteem by doing this
- we compare = our in-group whith the out group and hold a favorable bias toward our group
What are ppl seeking when they identigy with a social group?
self-esteem b/c they lack a positive personal indentity
in- group bias:
the tendency to benefit member of ones own group over other groups
what is the basis of in-group bias?
- the group definition of who you are, implies a definition of who you aren't
- the mere experience of being formed into groups may promote in-group bias
Minimal Group Paradigm:
an experimental procedure in which short-term, arbitrary, artificial groups are created to explore the foundations of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination
What is the non-verbal behavior that helps a person know when someone else is engaging in self-monitoring for deceptive purposes?
- facial expression
- tone of voice
- body movements
the tendency to be chronically concerned with ones public image and to adjust ones actions to fit the needs of the current situation
What are reasons for self-monitoring?
- to obtain desirable resources
- to control impressions ppl form of us
- the help others know how we expect to b treated
What classical study highlighted the minimal group paradigm?
Tiajes painting study
- a generalized attitude toward members of a social group
- -attitude = positive or negative evaluation of particular group
- generalized belief about member of a social group
- -belief = thoughts about these things
behaviors directed toward ppl on the basis of thier group membership
Provide explanantions for discriminating behavior using the four theoretical perspective in Social psychology:
- Social cognition = you see other ppl discriminats so you do to
- Social learning = parent discriminate so child learns to discriminate too
- evolutionary = we are born to discriminate a certain type of person b/c they are harmful
- sociocultural = where you live it is a social norm to discriminiate against a certain type of person
explain cognitive miser in the context of prejudice and stereotypes:
when one sees a perosn they us a cognitive miser to shortcut that perosn into a stereotype instead of taking the long route to get to know them
Findings of Steel & Aronson's Stereotype Vulnerabilty Study?
- blacks performed significantly worse than whites only in the diagnostic condition
- the nondiagnostic condition and challenge condition reduced the stereotype vulnerability
Design and manipulation of the "when a new identity does harm on the spot" article?
- 2 X 2 - negative or no stereotype & high vs. low group identification
- told each person has convex or concave information processing style
- in the negative stereotype condition, the more participants identified with their novel group, the stronger was their decrease in performance
what does it measure?
- Implicit Association Test
- Measures implicit prejudices and stereotypes