PHil mid...12

  1. Describe the Difference between validity and Soundess.
    Validity: We call an argument "valid" if it is the case that the truth of the premises necessarily imply the truth of the conclusion. The truth of the premices garantee the thruth of the conclusion.

    Soundness: We call an argument "sound" if the argument is valid AND all the statements, including the conclusion, are true.
  2. What is deduction and induction?
    Deduction: We call an argument "sound" if the argument is valid AND all the statements, including the conclusion, are true. "Top-Down"

    Induction: moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories. "Bottom-Up"
  3. Define each of these priori and Posteriori:
    Priori: it means an argument which argues solely from general principles and through logical inferences. i.e. 2+2=4

    Posteriori: a type of knowledge which is derived through experience or observation.
  4. What is empericism?
    Empiricism is a theory of knowledge that asserts that knowledge comes only or primarily via sensory experience.

    Rationalism is the belief that the world we live in can be understood by the use of reason.
  5. What is Rationalsim?
    Rationalism is the belief that the world we live in can be understood by the use of reason.
  6. What is skepticism?
    A Skeptic is one who doesnt think we have or even can have knowledge of a particlular sort.
  7. The structure of a Skeptical argument.
    • Example:
    • 1) I know that I have hands, then I knwo that im an not a Brain In AVat.
    • 2) I do not know that I am not a Brain In a Vat.
    • 3) I do not know that I have hands.
  8. Lyckan's Reply:
  9. What are the Requirement's for a good Definition?
    • A good definition is
    • 1) Universal
    • 2) Expanatory
    • 3) Must pic out only essential properties
    • 4) It must obide by the rules of logic
  10. What is relativism?
    sittem that states that there are no objective truths.
  11. Study about rene descaretes
    • ·
    • systematic doubt
    • and its purpose
    • ·
    • 3 stages of doubt
    • ·
    • what survives
    • each of the 3 stages
    • ·
    • 2 conclusions
    • drawn from the wax example
    • · why the nature of the wax cannot be grasped by imagination
  12. What are idaeas?
    Ideas are inmediate objects of the mind
  13. what are qualities?
    Are powres to produce ideas in us.
  14. Waht are primary qualities?
    primary qualities are extension, size, shape, motion, solidity.
  15. What are some examples of secondary Qualities?
    Color, taste, smell, Sound, feel.
  16. What are The three kinds of knowledge?
    • 1) Intuitive knowledge----->Imediately perceived
    • 2) Demostrative Knowledge----> A result of imediately perceived knowledge.
    • 3) Sensitive knowledge----->knowledge of external objects knowledge that comes trough the sences.
  17. 4 reasons fortrusting our senses about the existence of the external world?
    • 1. Exsist in the objects independently of observers.
    • 2. Our ideas resemble these primary qualities.
    • 3. Inseparable from the objects.
    • 4. In order to understand the external world we need to understand these qualites.
  18. What is idealism?
    Idelsim is the that only minds and ideas exsist.
  19. what is the argument for sensible objects as mere ideas?
    • 1) We indericlty perceive only sensible objects
    • 2) We directly perceive only ideas
    • 3) Therefore sensible objects are ideas?
  20. argument against
    representational theory of perception?
    • 1) In order to know that X resembles Y, we must be able to compare them.
    • 2) We can only compare ideas with ideas.
    • 3) We cannot compare our ideas PQs with external objects.
    • 4) We cannot know that our ideas of PQs resemble external objects.
  21. George Berkley agains the casual therory of perception
    • 1) If X has casual poweres then X is active
    • 2) Only minds (ie. will) is active."
    • 3) Therefore only minds have casual powers.

    For all this God mantains order.
  22. Acording to Hume Relations of ideas & matters of fact
    Negation does not jeild a contradiction.
  23. What is Hume’s general question
    What is the basis of our judgements regarding unobserved matters of fact.
  24. What deos Hume say about Cause and effect.
    Hume says that cause and effect is based upon our experinces.
Card Set
PHil mid...12
Study material for philosophy midterm.