APUSH 2/29

  1. Allied Powers
  2. consisted of the United Kingdom, France, the United States (in 1941), the Soviet Union, and Belgium. The Soviet Union joined with them when Germany broke their non-aggression pact in 1941.
  3. Axis Powers
    consisted of Germany, Japan, and Italy. Germany began the conflict by invading Poland and then joined with Italy and Japan to form the Tripartite Pact. This pact allowed the three countries to help each other and also focused on keeping the United States out of the war.
  4. America First Committee
  5. This was a committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker.
  6. Arsenal of democracy
  7. describes the war effort between 1940 and 1943, when the government focused on providing supplies for World War II. This helped to boost America’s economy and get the country out of the Great Depression.
  8. Atlantic Charter
    provided the basic ideas for the creation of the United Nations, and was created when Roosevelt and Churchill met on the U.S.S. Augusta. It expressed the main purpose of the Allies, pledged collective security, disarmament, self-determination, economic cooperation, and freedom of the seas. This document was signed by 26 nations, all of which supported the Allies. In summary, it outlined the hopes of the democracies and their intentions for improvements after World War II.
  9. Argentia Conference
  10. this was also known as the Atlantic Conference but it took place in Argentia. It was a meeting between the British and the United States which formed the Atlantic Charter and set the goals for the Allies during World War II.
  11. Big three
    the name given to the three most powerful figures at the Potsdam Conference toward the end of World War II. The three were Winston Churchill from England, Harry S. Truman from the United States, and Josef Stalin from the Soviet Union.
  12. Fascists
    an ideology in which a government is lead by a dictator in which all of the people unite as one. The people have a strong sense of nationalism and hope to mobilize their nation through strong discipline and often violence. This is the ideology that was used in both Germany and Italy during World War II, and it was highly opposed and feared by the United States.
  13. Isolationism
    - Most of the country had these beliefs before entering WWII, which means that they didn’t want to get involved in European affairs. Roosevelt was one of the largest supporters of this as the country had just gotten out of World War I and they were still struggling with the Great Depression.
  14. Kellogg-Briand Pact
    renounced all war after World War I. It followed the isolationists’ beliefs of the time, and was signed by the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Japan, and Germany. Obviously, this plan failed upon the beginning of World War II. Originally it had only been between the United States and Great Britain.
  15. Korematsu vs US
    This was a court case regarding the constitutionality of the Japanese relocation camps that were created after Pearl Harbor. The United States feared that the Japanese-Americans were spies for Japan so in order to prevent them from providing any harmful information they sent them to camps where they were held prisoner. A Japanese-American refused internment and was arrested but fought for his freedom on the grounds of the Constitution. The court ruled that in times of war, discrimination such as this was allowed.
  16. Lend-Lease
  17. A law passed in March of 1941 by sweeping majorities in both houses of Congress. This law said that the U.S. would lend or lease weapons to overseas countries and victims of aggression who would in turn finish the job of the fighting, and keep the war overseas from the U.S.
  18. Manhattan Project
  19. This was a secret American program, during World War Two, to develop an atomic bomb. One of the main scientists behind this mission was a German scientist, Albert Einstein. This successfully produced two types of atomic bombs known as Little Boy and Fat Man, which were used to end World War II at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  20. Munich Conference
    This was an agreement that allowed Germany to gain the land that it had already taken over, including the Sudeten Land, which contained many German people. This was made in order to appease Adolf Hitler and to prevent another war, even though it directly disobeyed the provision created in the Treaty of Paris at the end of World War II.
  21. Neutrality Acts (1939)
    Congress made an effort to legislate the nation out of war. stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, or sell or transport munitions to a belligerent nation, or make loans to a belligerent.
  22. Nye Committee
  23. The Nye Committee investigated arms manufacturers and bankers of World War I. Claimed they had caused America's entry into WWI. Public opinion pushed Congress to pass the Neutrality Acts to keep us out of WWII. investigate the structure, activities, and profits of the munitions industry and its role in U.S. entry into World War I. It held ninety-three hearings from September 1934 until February 1936. It failed to prove that arms manufacturers had conspired to begin the war or to force the United States into it
  24. Office of Price Administration
  25. created upon the entrance of the United States into World War II in order to regulate prices and mobilize the country. It also was allowed to ration to purchase of other materials that were important to the war effort, such as rubber, clothes, oil, gasoline, and food. By limiting the amount that citizens could consume, more would be available for the army and the war efforts.
  26. Pearl Harbor
  27. Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
  28. Potsdam Conference
  29. This was held near Berlin in 1945 with Truman, Stalin and Winston Churchill (later Clement Atlee) who issued an ultimatum to Japan to surrender or be destroyed. This is also where Truman learned about the Atomic Bomb.
  30. Selective Service Act
  31. This was the first draft ever enacted during peace time for the United States. It randomly selected men from the ages of 21 to 35 to serve for twelve months in the U.S. Army. The soldiers were then trained, so by the time the United States was ready to enter the war, the U.S. had a large trained force ready for combat. This sent 1.4 million men to army training camps by July 1941.
  32. United Nations
  33. conference took place on April 25, 1945. FDR died on April 12, but had chosen Republican and Democratic representatives to meet at the San Francisco War Memorial Opera House with representatives from 50 nations, fashioning a charter similar to the old League of Nations covenant. It featured a Security Council dominated by the US, Britain, USSR, France, and China (the big 5 powers), and an Assembly that could be controlled by smaller countries . The Security Council had the “primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security,” and each enjoyed absolute veto power over the decisions of the other members. The UN achieved its greatest success with its humanitarian programs. The UN's permanent home was in NY city.
  34. War Productions Board
  35. halted the manufacture of nonessential items such as passenger cars. It assigned priorities for transportation and access to raw materials. It imposed a national speed limit and gasoline rationing because, due to the Dutch East Indies ending their exports of natural rubber to the U.S., they wanted to conserve rubber. They also built fifty-one synthetic rubber plants. This was the decisive factor for victory, even more than military prowess and superior strategy, would be, the ability of the US to out produce its enemies. Facing war orders too large to fill, American industries were now primed for all out production. Factories operated around the clock, seven days a week. In January 1943, Roosevelt formed the War Production Board to “exercise general responsibility” for all this activity.
  36. Washington Conference
    This was a meeting between Roosevelt and Churchill in order to discuss the military strategies that would be used in WWII. They agreed to focus on defeating Germany first and they consolidated their armies under one command in the European Theater of Operations. Other conferences were held later on in order to further discuss new war strategies. It was also known as the Arcadia Conference (code name), and was held in Washington, D.C. from December 22, 1941 to January 14, 1942. It was the first meeting following the United States' entry into World War II. On January 1, 1942, 26 governments attending the conference agreed to the Declaration by United Nations. In addition, the United Nations was formally established during this conference on 1 Jan 1942.
  37. Yalta Conference
    conference in early February 1945between Stalin, Churchill and FDR in an attempt to get Russian support in the highly anticipated invasion of Japan. Russia, in return, received the southern part of Sakilin Island that it had lost to Japan and joint control of Manchuria's railroads. The Allies also reluctantly allowed Poland to become communist. Many Americans saw this deal as a failure. Roosevelt believed the Soviet entry into the Pacific war was necessary for a timely Allied victory. Stalin agreed to declare war against Japan within two or three months of Germany’s surrender.
  38. The American Century
    term used to describe the United States' dominance of much of the 20th century, in political, economic and cultural terms. The United States' influence grew throughout the 20th century, but became especially dominant after the end of World War II, when only two superpowers remained, the United States and the Soviet Union. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States remained the world's only superpower became the hegemon, or what some have termed a hyperpower.
  39. Atomic diplomacy
  40. a term characterizing the foreign policy of the USA after the end of World War II. It depended on the ability of the US to back up its commitments through military means, and Truman invested his faith in the U.S. monopoly of atomic weapons. The US began to build atomic stockpiles and to conduct tests on the Bikini Islands in the Pacific. Within a few years, both the US and the Soviet Union had tested hydrogen bombs a thousand times more powerful than the weapons dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945.
  41. Baby Boom
    The end of World War II brought a baby boom to many countries, especially Western ones. There is some disagreement as to the precise beginning and ending dates of the post-war baby boom, but it is most often agreed to begin in the years immediately after the war, ending more than a decade later, around 1946-1964, with the highest rate in 1957.
  42. Berlin Crisis
    was the last major politico-military European incident of the Cold War about the occupational status of the German capital city, Berlin, and of post–World War II Germany. The U.S.S.R. provoked the Berlin Crisis with an ultimatum demanding the withdrawal of Western armed forces from West Berlin-culminating with the city's de facto partition with the East German erection of the Berlin Wall. Three hundred day Soviet blockade of land access to US, British, and French occupation zone sin Berlin, 1948-1949. Over two million tons of supplies were delivered. This led to the Berlin airlift.
  43. Bretton Woods
    first example of a fully negotiated monetary order intended to govern monetary relations among independent nation-states. 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations gathered at the Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference. The delegates deliberated upon and signed the Bretton Woods Agreements during the first three weeks of July 1944. The Soviet Union participated in the Bretton Woods conference but refused to ratify the agreements that, in essence, allowed the US to rebuild the world economy along capitalist lines. By spurning both the World Bank and the IMF , the Soviet Union cut off the possibility of aid to its own people as well as to its Eastern European client states, and equally important, isolated itself economy.
  44. Checkers speech
    was an address made by Richard Nixon, the Republican vice presidential candidate and junior United States Senator from California, on television and radio on September 23, 1952. Senator Nixon had been accused of improprieties relating to a fund established by his backers to reimburse him for his political expenses. With his place on the Republican ticket in doubt, he flew to Los Angeles and delivered a half-hour television address in which he defended himself, attacked his opponents, and urged the audience to contact the Republican National Committee (RNC) to tell it whether he should remain on the ticket. During the speech, he stated that regardless of what anyone said, he intended to keep one gift- a black-and-white dog named Checkers by the Nixon children, thus giving the address its popular name.
  45. The Cold War
    The political and economic confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States that dominated world affairs from 1946 to 1989.
  46. Collective security
    a security arrangement, regional or global, in which each state in the system accepts that the security of one is the concern of all, and agrees to join in a collective response to threats to, and breaches of, the peace.
  47. Containment
    was a United States policy using numerous strategies to prevent the spread of communism abroad. A component of the Cold War, this policy was a response to a series of moves by the Soviet Union to enlarge communist influence in Eastern Europe, China, Korea, and Vietnam. It represented a middle-ground position between détente and rollback. The basis of the doctrine was articulated in a 1946 cable by U.S. diplomat George F. Kennan.
  48. Demobilization
    the process of standing down a nation's armed forces from combat-ready status. This may be as a result of victory in war, or because a crisis has been peacefully resolved and military force will not be necessary. The opposite of demobilization is mobilization. Also known as a guns to butter transition.
  49. Dixiecrats
    short-lived segregationist political party in the United States in 1948. It originated as a breakaway faction of the Democratic Party in 1948, determined to protect what they portrayed as the southern way of life beset by an oppressive federal government, and supporters assumed control of the state Democratic parties in part or in full in several Southern states. The States' Rights Democratic Party opposed racial integration and wanted to retain Jim Crow laws and white supremacy in the face of possible federal intervention. Truman had to contend with Democrats defecting from the right in the 1948 election. Southern democrats endorsed the States’ Rights (“Dixiecrat”) ticket, headed by Governor J. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina, known for his racist views.
  50. East/West Germany
    The Allies ultimately decided to divide the conquered nation into four occupation zones, each governed by one of the allied nations. Informally called East Germany in West Germany and other countries, was a socialist state established by the USSR in 1949 in the Soviet zone of occupied Germany including East Berlin of the Allied-occupied capital city. After 1961, West-Berlin was physically separated from East-Berlin as well as from East Germany by the Berlin Wall. Western Germany was formed in the three Allied Zones of occupation held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France (the "Western Zones").
  51. Election of 1948
    Truman had to contend with Democrats defecting from the right in the 1948 election. Southern democrats endorsed the States’ Rights (“Dixiecrat”) ticket, headed by Governor J. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina, known for his racist views. With the South as good as lost and popular New York governor Thomas E. Dewey heading the Republican ticket, Truman appeared far from victory. Fear of the Republicans won back the bulk of organized labor, while the recognition of the new State of Israel in May 1948 helped prevent the defection of many liberal Jewish voters from democratic ranks. The success of the Berlin airlift also buoyed the president’s popularity. Truman won the popular vote by a margin of 5 percent and trounced Dewey 303 to 189 in the electoral collect.
  52. Election of 1952
    also brought the first use of TV political advertising for presidential candidates. The Republican Party hired a high powered ad agency, Batten, Barton, Durstine, and Osborn to create a series of short, sophisticated advertisements touting Dwight. D. Eisenhower. The BBD and O campaign saturated TV with twenty second Eisenhower spots for two weeks before Election Day. Ever since then, television image making has been the single most important element in American electoral politics.
  53. Executive Order 9835
    Within two weeks of proclaiming the Truman Doctrine, the president signed this order on March 21, 1947, and thereby established a loyalty program for all federal employees. The new Federal Employees Loyalty and Security Program, directed at members of the Communist Party, in effect established a political test for federal employment. It also outlined procedures for investigating current and prospective federal employees. He also hoped to quiet right-wing critics who accused Democrats of being soft on communism. Additionally, he advised the Loyalty Review Board to limit the role of the Federal Bureau of Investigation to avoid a witch hunt.
  54. The Fair Deal
    the name given to Harry Truman's domestic program. Building on Roosevelt's New Deal, Truman believed that the federal government should guarantee economic opportunity and social stability, and he struggled to achieve those ends in the face of fierce political opposition from conservative legislators determined to reduce the role of government. When he left office the Fair Deal was considered to have mixed success. This was partially due to his lack of attention towards domestic issues because of American involvement in the Cold War.
  55. Hollywood Ten
  56. Ten motion-picture producers, directors, and screenwriters who appeared before the House Un-American Activities Committee in October 1947, refused to answer questions regarding their possible communist affiliations, and, after spending time in prison for contempt of Congress, were mostly blacklisted by the Hollywood studios. The blacklisting heightened anti-communist hysteria in the United States.
  57. HUAC
    A Congressional committee that held hearings on the film and entertainment industries. The point was to prove that the Screen Writer’s s guild had Communist members and writers were putting propaganda into Hollywood films. The HUAC lead to the blacklisting of the Hollywood Ten, and it also destroyed the livelihoods of many American film writers and actors. HUAC wanted to show that they had complete control over the censorship in Hollywood.
  58. Korean War
    On June 25, 1950, the Korean War began when Communist North Korean soldiers crossed the 38th parallel into Democratic controlled South Korea. This invasion was the first military action of the Cold War. America got involved because they viewed it as a war to fight off international communism. American leaders were afraid that this war would lead to an even bigger war between the United States and the Soviet Union or China, or possibly even a World War III. In 1953 the Korean War came to an end. North Korea and South Korea are still divided today.
  59. Marshall Plan
    President Truman’s response to the devastation World War II had brought to the European continent. From 1945 through 1947, the United States was already assisting European economic recovery with direct financial aid. Military assistance to Greece and Turkey was being given. This was partially to prevent any of the still democratic nations to turn to communism. European nations received nearly $13 billion in aid, which initially resulted in shipments of food, staples, fuel and machinery from the United States and later resulted in investment in industrial capacity in Europe. Marshall Plan funding ended in 1951. European nation’s recovery was greatly assisted by the Marshall Plan.
  60. McCarran Act (1950)
    this was part of a legislative package that was the Internal Security Act of 1950. Congress passed the law in response to the Cold War during which many public officials perceived a threat to over-throw of the United States government by U.S. Communist groups. Among other things, the legislation required members of the Communist party to register with the attorney general, and the named organizations had to provide certain information, such as lists of their members. It established the Subversive Activities Control Board to determine which individuals and organizations had to comply with the law and the procedures to be followed. Failures to meet requirements lead the individual or organization to criminal prosecution and stiff fines. The act was repealed in 1968.
  61. McCarthyism
    An idea lead by Joseph McCarthy to defeat communism. McCarthy heightened anti-communist hysteria within the United States through McCarthyism. He wrongly accused many members of the state program of being communist on false pretenses. McCarthy used McCarthyism to give him political power and strength, however, eventually McCarthyism turned on him as many of his allegations were proved false.
  62. McCarthyism
    is the practice of making accusations of disloyalty, subversion, or treason without proper regard for evidence. The term has its origins in the period in the United States known as the Second Red Scare, lasting roughly from the late 1940s to the late 1950s and characterized by heightened fears of communist influence on American institutions and espionage by Soviet agents. Originally coined to criticize the anti-communist pursuits of Republican U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin, "McCarthyism" soon took on a broader meaning, describing the excesses of similar efforts. The term is also now used more generally to describe reckless, unsubstantiated accusations, as well as demagogic attacks on the character or patriotism of political adversaries
  63. National Security Act of 1947
    mandated a major reorganization of the foreign policy and military establishments of the U.S. Government. The act created many of the institutions that Presidents found useful when formulating and implementing foreign policy, including the National Security Council (NSC). Many important figures would meet at the white house to discuss the security of the nation. The act also created the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
  64. NSC-68
  65. National Security Council Report 68 was a 58-page formerly-classified report issued by the United States National Security Council on April 14, 1950, during the presidency of Harry S. Truman. Written during the developmental stages of the Cold War, it was top secret until the 1970s when it was made public. It was one of the most significant statements of American policy in the Cold War. NSC-68 largely shaped U.S. foreign policy in the Cold War for the next 20 years.
  66. NATO
    North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This was comprised of most of the democratic organizations at the beginning of the Cold War. It was a response to the Soviet’s communist power. NATO was a pact saying that the countries involved in it would support it through war and disagreements. In response, the Soviets created the Warsaw Pact. These were the two main treaty organizations during the Cold War.
  67. Nuremburg Trials
  68. Twenty-four major political and military leaders of Nazi Germany, indicted for aggressive war, war crimes, and crimes against humanity, were brought to trial before the International Military Tribunal. This was the first time the losing side of a war faced consequences for their actions during a war. After World War II, this became protocol.
  69. Pentagon
  70. The nations department for defense in Arlington, Virginia. Building of the pentagon started in 1941, and it was designed by the American architect George Bergstrom. It was built by Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, general contractor John McShain. Today it is the world’s largest office building. It got the nickname “ground zero” because during the Cold War, the United States was worried that the pentagon would be attacked if a nuclear war was to break out.
  71. Reconversion
    When the United States had to switch back from a wartime economy to a peacetime one, the main thought was to go through the process of reconversion. The government created public works projects. Also, there was a construction boom within the United States. This helped the housing market which directly helped the economy. Many people still had the Great Depression fresh on their minds, and they went through reconversion to assure that America would not fall into another depression
  72. Serviceman's Readjustment Act (G.I. Bill)
    Also known as the G.I. Bill, this was a government run piece of legislation that’s purpose was to assimilate soldiers back into everyday life. This was put into place so that the disaster that happened following World War I would not occur again. The G.I. Bill would grant veterans the money to go to college, or to finish their high school education. Veterans embraced the education opportunity and home loan benefits. From the years 1944-1952, 2.4 million home loans were backed for veterans. This worked very positively for integrating the soldiers back into civilian life.
  73. Taft-Hartley Act (1947)
    was passed over the veto of Harry Truman. When it was passed by Congress Truman denounced it as a "slave-labor bill". The act declared the closed shop illegal and permitted the union shop only after a vote of a majority of the employees. It also forbade jurisdictional strikes and secondary boycotts. Other aspects of the legislation included the right of employers to be exempted from bargaining with unions unless they wished to. It also gave the United States Attorney General the power to get an 80 day ban when a threatened or actual strike that he thought was a threat to the national economy.
  74. Truman Doctrine
    policy set forth by the U.S. President Harry S Truman in a speech on March 12, 1947 stating that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere. This is sometimes considered to be the start of the Cold War. In the Doctrine Truman stated that it was the right of the United States to protect other democratic nations from totalitarian regimes like the Soviet Union. As a result four hundred million dollars was sent over to Europe. Another result was that this shifted the American’s opinion of the Soviets from relaxed to anti-communist hysteria.
  75. Bay of Pigs
    an unsuccessful attempt by United States-backed Cuban exiles to overthrow the government of the Cuban dictator Fidel Castro. Increasing friction between the U.S. government and Castro's leftist government led President Dwight D. Eisenhower to break off diplomatic relations with Cuba in January 1961. Even before that, however, the Central Intelligence Agency had been training anti-revolutionary Cuban exiles for a possible invasion of the island. The invasion plan was approved by Eisenhower's successor, John F. Kennedy, but it proved to be a failure.
  76. Centerless City
    An urban condition usually occurring in a modern style city. This is where there is not necessarily a center from where the city is expanding, but instead the whole area is crowded, and essentially centerless.
  77. Covert Action
    Actions by the United States Central Intelligence Agency. These were missions that were so secret that the government could deny any affiliation with the mission at all. It can range from things such as newspaper propaganda to bombing. This came about during the Cold War, when the United States CIA did its job in pulling the United States ahead of the Soviet Union.
  78. Cuban Missile Crisis
  79. In Oct. of 1962, U.S. intelligence confirmed reports that the U.S.S.R. was constructing missile launching sites in Cuba. President Kennedy rejected a full-scale attack and, instead, delivered a public ultimatum to the U.S.S.R. The U.S.S.R. backed down and the U.S. promised not to overthrow the Cuban government.
  80. Domino theory
    The domino theory was a theory regarding communism, that once one country accepted it as their country’s policy, it would spread to the other countries around it like dominoes. This was part of the reason why America had such a strong policy of containment.
  81. Election of 1960
  82. The election between Nixon and Kennedy. Kennedy became the first ever Catholic president and was known for using the television to his advantage in televised debates. He is often known as one of the youngest and most glamorous presidents ever elected.
  83. Federal Highway Act (1956)
    Eisenhower spent about $32 billion in National Interstate Highway System, making it easier to travel and move to the suburbs. This allowed for a lot of expansion and aided the new views of a 1950’s family. Along with increasing the highway industry, Eisenhower presented the opportunities for the industries of housing and automobiles to grow.
  84. Federak Housing Authority (FHA)
    subsidized the housing industry. It mainly focused on the suburbs, which cased the inner city to suffer. It discouraged multi-unit housing and discriminated against racially mixed communities, as they believed that stability could only be achieved through the same race and same lifestyles.
  85. Levittown
    This was one of the first planned communities in the suburbs. It was built in 1947 on former potato fields, and was called the “perfect planned community.” It also had prefabricated housing. This community was segregated, up until the 1960’s, as black residents were not welcomed.
  86. Military Industrial Complex
    The relationship between the military, the presidential administration, and congress to produce weapons and equipment for war. Its basic goal was to bring about a war that would create a profit. President Eisenhower mentioned this for the first time in his farewell address to the nation, warning the American people not to allow this to affect its decisions at home and abroad.
  87. Massive Retaliation
    This is an all or nothing strategy. It goes along with the idea of brinksmanship, meaning that a country would use this when it is on the brink of war. It is complete and utter destruction, and during the Cold War this was the fear of a nuclear attack by both the United States and the Soviets. Up until the Kennedy Administration, this was the policy used by American presidents during the Cold War.
  88. NASA
    Established under the Eisenhower Administration, this was created in a response to the Soviet Union launch of Sputnik. NASA funded all of the Apollo missions, and therefore put the first man on the moon. This is the largest examples of a result of the Space Race, and a direct result of the Cold War.
  89. National Defense Education Act
    This was a direct result of the Soviet's launching of Sputnik. America became afraid that Soviet schools were ahead of American schools, and this made the United States advance their education programs (particularly in math and science) so that they could compete with the Soviet Union. This act provided financial assistance to further the learning to American citizens.
  90. New Frontier
    This was John F. Kennedy's presidential slogan as he ran for the office of president in 1960. This phrase later developed into a label for his domestic and foreign policy programs as president. He referred to the 1960's as the "new frontier" for economic and social opportunity.
  91. Sputnik
    The first satellite to be put into Earth's orbit. It was launched into an elliptical low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957. The unanticipated announcement of Sputnik's success precipitated the Sputnik crisis in the United States and ignited the Space Race, a part of the larger Cold War. The launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments. While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start of the Space Age.
  92. Suburbs/suburban life
    Mainly starting in the 1950's, many people moved from the cities to the suburbs. The people moving were primarily middle class, and this created a new standard for what middle class was in America. Suburban life also created a stereotypical role for women, particularly displayed in the media. This changed the way the country was laid out, and it also changed things such as transportation.
  93. Test Ban Treaty (1963)
    treaty prohibiting all test detonations of nuclear weapons except underground. It was developed to slow the arms race. Nuclear testing was, at the time, necessary for continued nuclear weapon advancements. It was also created to to stop the excessive release of nuclear fallout into the planet's atmosphere. This was one of the signs of a thawing in the Cold War.
  94. U-2 Incident
    This occurred during the Cold War on May 1, 1960, during the presidency of Dwight Eisenhower and during the leadership of Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, when a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down over the airspace of the Soviet Union. At first the U.S. tried to deny that the plane was actually a spy plane, but the Soviet Union affirmed that it was and this left America to deal with their diplomatic lie. This was not a positive impact on Eisenhower or the United States as a whole
  95. Hot Zone
    This is referring to the Hydrogen bomb. This bomb is 1000 times stronger than the nuclear Atomic Bombs dropped on Japan. The "hot zone" is referring to the center of the bomb when the explosion is taking place.In this zone, because of the high temperature, nearly all of the matter present is vaporized to form a gas at extremely high pressure. A shock wave is released because of this, and that is what creates most of the destruction.
Card Set
APUSH 2/29
Unit 12