AP World- Ch.25 Vocab

  1. Toussaint L’Overture
    Leader of slave rebellion on the French sugar island of St. Domingue in 1791; led to creation of independent republic of Haiti in 1804
  2. Father Miguel de Hidalgo
    Mexican priest who established independence movement among Indians and mestizos in 1810; despite early victories, was captured and executed
  3. Augustin de Iturbide
    Conservative Creole officer in Mexican army who signed agreement with insurgent forces of independence; combined forces entered Mexico City in 1821; later proclaimed emperor of Mexico until its collapse in 1824.
  4. Simon Bolivar
    Creole military officer in northern South America; won series of victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822; military success led to creation of independent state of Gran Colombia.
  5. Gran Colombia
    Independent state created in South America as a result of military successes of Simon Bolívar; existed only until 1830, at which time Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate nations
  6. Jose de San Martin
    Leader of independence movement in Rio de la Plata; led to independence of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata by 1816; later led independence movement in Chile and Peru as well.
  7. Pedro I
    Son and successor of Dom João VI in Brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence from Portugal in 1822; became constitutional emperor of Brazil
  8. Caudillos
    Independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule; typical throughout newly independent countries of Latin America.
  9. Centralists
    Latin American politicians who wished to create strong, centralized national governments with broad powers; often supported by politicians who described themselves as conservatives
  10. Federalists
    Latin American politicians who wanted policies, especially fiscal and commercial regulation, to be set by regional governments rather than centralized national administrations; often supported by politicians who described themselves as liberals
  11. Juan Manuel de Rosas
    Strongman leader in Buenos Aires; took power in 1831; commanded loyalty of gauchos; restored local autonomy
  12. Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana
    Seized power in Mexico after collapse of empire of Mexico in 1824; after brief reign of liberals, seized power in 1835 as caudillo; defeated by Texans in war for independence in 1836; defeated by United States in Mexican-American War in 1848; unseated by liberal rebellion in 1854
  13. Monroe Doctrine
    American declaration stated in 1823; established that any attempt of a European country to colonize in the Americas would be considered an unfriendly act by the United States; supported by Great Britain as a means of opening Latin American trade
  14. Guano
    Bird droppings utilized as fertilizer; exported from Peru as a major item of trade between 1850 and 1880; income from trade permitted end to Indian tribute and abolition of slavery
  15. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    Agreement that ended the Mexican-American War; provided for loss of Texas and California to the United States; left legacy of distrust of the United States in Latin America
  16. Mexican American War
    Fought between Mexico and the United States from 1846 to 1848; led to devastating defeat of Mexican forces, loss of about one-half of Mexico's national territory to the United States
  17. Benito Juarez
    Indian governor of state of Oaxcaca in Mexico; leader of liberal rebellion against Santa Anna; liberal government defeated by French intervention under Emperor Napoleon III of France and establishment of Mexican Empire under Maximilian; restored to power in 1867 until his death in 1872.
  18. Maximilian von Habsburg
    Proclaimed emperor of Mexico following intervention of France in 1862; ruled until overthrow and execution by liberal revolutionaries under Benito Juárez in 1867
  19. Argentine Republic
    Replaced state of Buenos Aires in 1862; result of compromise between centralists and federalists
  20. Spanish-American War
    War fought between Spain and the United States beginning in 1898; centered on Cuba and Puerto Rico; permitted American intervention in Caribbean, annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines
  21. Panama Canal
    An aspect of American intervention in Latin America; resulted from United States support for a Panamanian independence movement in return for a grant to exclusive rights to a canal across the Panama isthmus; provided short route from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean; completed 1914
Card Set
AP World- Ch.25 Vocab