Bio Exam 2

  1. Photosynthesis is an example of:

    B. An endergonic reaction
  2. What is the main product of the electron transport chain?

    C. ATP
  3. What is the final event in aerobic respiration?

    C. O2 gets reduced
  4. How is cellular respiration related to breathing?
    When we breathe we inhale the input of respiration (O2) and exhale the outputs of respiration (CO2 and H2O).
  5. Which below is FALSE?

    D. Asexual reproduction is relatively new
  6. How are the members of a homologous pair of chromosomes similar and different?
    They carry the same genes, in the same sequence, but may have different alleles of those genes.
  7. Why is photosynthesis important for the direction taken in the evolution of life on Earth?

    D. It allowed organisms to become more complex
  8. Why is it not correct to describe photosynthesis as “a process in which water and carbon dioxide combine to form glucose”?
    Water and carbon dioxide do not directly combine in photosynthesis. Water is an input of the Light Reactions whereas CO2 is an input of the Carbon Reactions.
  9. How is oxygen gas produced during photosynthesis?

    B. By breaking down H2O
  10. Photons are…

    D. Packets of energy that travel in waves
  11. Put the following wavelengths of light in order from highest to lowest energy:
  12. Which is the most abundant pigment present in plants?

    B. Chlorophyll a
  13. Why are there yellow, orange and red leaves in fall in temperate areas?

    D. Chlorophyll disappears from the leaves then
  14. What is the best definition of NADPH?

    A. An electron carrier molecule produced in the stroma of the chloroplast
  15. The carbon reactions of photosynthesis used to be called dark reactions. Why the name change?

    B. Even though light is not an input, the carbon reactions need to occur simultaneously with the light reactions
  16. During photosynthesis…

    B. Carbon dioxide is reduced into glucose
  17. During aerobic respiration…

    D. Glucose is oxidized into carbon dioxide
  18. Photosystems 1 and 2 are connected by:

    C. An electron transport chain
  19. PGAL is:

    D. A carbohydrate produced in the Calvin cycle
  20. True or False: CO2 can be either absorbed by the leaves or by the roots of a plant.
    • False, CO2 is absorbed only by the leaves using the
    • stomata.
  21. True or False: Glucose can be either absorbed by the leaves or by the roots of a plant.
    • False, Plants do not absorb glucose; they produce
    • it.
  22. What are the 3 pathways to obtain energy from food used by organisms?
    • Aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration and
    • fermentation
  23. During glycolysis, a glucose molecule is:

    C. Broken down to form 2 molecules of pyruvate
  24. The electrons that are transferred during cellular respiration are carried in the molecules:

    B. NADH and FADH2
  25. The electron transport chain of respiration is located in the:

    B. Mitochondrion
  26. The area enclosed by the highly folded inner mitochondrial membrane is the:

    D. Matrix
  27. In Glycolysis the net number of ATP produced is:

    D. 2
  28. The sole source of ATP production in cells using fermentation only is:

    B. Glycolysis
  29. The most ancient of the energy pathways is probably:

    C. Glycolysis
  30. If you put a plant in a chamber and place it in the dark, the concentrations ______:

    A. of O2 will fall and CO2 will rise
  31. The molecule that controls the synthesis of proteins and copies itself for the next generation of cells is:

    C. DNA
  32. Eukaryotic chromosomes become microscopically visible in cell division because:

    C. They become more tightly wound
  33. A cell with two full sets of chromosomes would be termed a_____ cell.

    C. Diploid
  34. The pair of unmatched chromosomes in humans:

    C. Are the sex chromosomes in males
  35. The portion of the cytoskeleton that enables the chromosomes to be separated equally into two sets is the:

    B. Mitotic spindle
  36. The phase of mitosis in which the nuclear envelope breaks into small pieces is:

    D. Prometaphase
  37. A zygote is:

    A. A diploid cell
  38. Meiotic cell division replicates a cell’s DNA ______ and then divides ______.

    B. Once, twice
  39. Chromosomes that look alike and carry the same sequence of genes for the same traits are:

    C. Homologous chromosomes
  40. In meiosis, paired homologs align down the center of the cell during:

    C. Metaphase 1
  41. G1
    Cell grows
  42. S
    DNA replication
  43. G2
    prepares to divide
  44. Prophase Mitosis
    • –DNA coils tightly
    • –2 centrosomes migrate to opposite poles
    • –Spindle fibers form
    • –Nucleolus disappears
  45. Prometaphase Mitosis
    • –Spindles attach to chromosomes
    • –Nuclearenvelope disappears
  46. Metaphase Mitosis
    Mitotic spindle aligns chromosomes on equator
  47. Anaphase Mitosis
    • Centromeres split
    • Sister chromatids pulled apart
  48. Telophase Mitosis
    • –Spindle disassembles
    • –Chromosomes unwind
    • –Nuclear envelope and nucleolus reappear
  49. Prophase 1 Meiosis 1
    • Replicated chromosomes condense
    • Homologous chromosomes line up next to one another
    • Crossing over occurs
  50. Metaphase 1 Meiosis 1
    Paired homologs align at the cell’s equator
  51. Anaphase 1 Meiosis 1
    • Homologous chromosomes separate
    • Sister chromatids remain joined
  52. Telophase 1 Meiosis 1
    • Nuclear envelopes form around chromosomes with may temporarily decondense
    • spindles disappear
  53. Prophase 2 Meiosis 2
    • Spindles form
    • Nuclear envelopes break up
  54. Metaphase 2 Meiosis 2
    Chromosomes align along equator of cell
  55. Anaphase 2 Meiosis 2
    Centromeres split as sister chromatids separate to opposite poles of cell
  56. Telophase 2 Meiosis 2
    • Nuclear envelopes assemble around daughter nuclei
    • Chromosomes decondense
    • Spindles disappear
  57. Polyploidy
    • Diploid human gametes may be formed due to problems in formation of the spindle fibers
    • Fertilization would produce a triploid zygote, not viable; zygote does not develop
  58. Nondisjunction
    • Chromosomes fail to separate at either the first or the second meiotic division
    • results in Extra or missing chromosomes (one extra chromosomes: trisomy)
    • Most embryos with incorrect chromosome numbers cease developing before birth (spontaneous abortion)
  59. Trisomy 21
    Down Syndrome
  60. Trisomy
    One extra chromosome
Card Set
Bio Exam 2
Photosynthesis, cellular respiration, mitosis, meiosis