1. palentology
    study of prehistoris life, including extinct organisms and how they evolved
  2. fossils are rare
    they decay or are buried or destroyed
  3. ant to wasp
    missing link, found ant confirmed by new fossil body plan was similar
  4. fish to tetrapod missing link
    tiktaalik, went from panderichythys and tetrapod like ichthyostega and in the middle tiktaalik
  5. origin of tetrapods
    four limbed organisms from fin to limb (mosaic evolution)
  6. jawless fish
  7. lobe finned fish and lungfish
  8. aquatic tetrapods (tikaalik)
  9. evolution of amphibians
  10. gnathastomes jawed vertebrates
    common ancestor to chondrichthyes and osteichyes
  11. ray finned fish
  12. flesh finned fish
  13. archaean eon
    3.5bya origin of life occured
  14. proteozoic
    2.2bya increased oxygen when eukaryotes became in existence
  15. paleozoic
    543 mya
  16. agnathans
    ancestor to all fish and tetrapods
  17. fish to tetrapod evolution
    Eusthenopteron (all aquatic), panderichthys (shallow waters), tiktaalik (shallow waters and shoreline), acanthostega (tetrapod in shallow swamps), ichthyostega (amphibian like)
  18. evolution of birds from theropod
    150 mya in jurassic
  19. archaeopteryx
    had feathers evolved as thermal protection
  20. innovations from theropods to modern birds
    loss of teeth, forelimb digits/claws, fewer tail vertbrae, enlarged breastbone
  21. preadaptions for flight
    hollow limb bones and feathers that were ancestral traits
  22. origin of mammals (synapsids)
    340 mya carboniferous, diverged from the ancester of reptiles and birds
  23. innovations of mammals
    • differentiation of teeth into incisors, canines, premolars, and complex cusps
    • opening behind eye socket
    • enlarged braincase
    • lower jaw made up of single bone
    • 3 bones in middle ear
  24. Amniota
    repltiles, birds and mammals
  25. synapsids
    • therapids
    • cynodonts and mammals
  26. marsupials diverge from placental mammals
    100 mya
  27. innovations of ceaceans
    • nasal opening further back
    • loss of function of pelvis and hind legs
    • modification of ear anatomy
  28. cenozoic tertiary epocene
    50mya aquatic mammals evolved
  29. semi aquatic
  30. shallow coastal crocs
Card Set
second part