1. What are the two semi-independant parts of the lymphatic system?
    • network of lymphatic vessels
    • lymphoid tissue and organs
  2. What is interstital fluid in the lymphatic vessels?
  3. What are the 4 functions of the lymphatic system?
    • return interstitial fluid and leaked plasma to blood
    • one way system to the heart
    • transport fats
    • immune responses
  4. What is the fluid that is "squeezed out" of blood capillaries?
    interstitial fluid
  5. What are 2 differences between lymphatic capillaries and blood capillaries?
    • more permeable
    • have endothelial minivalves which allow lymph to come in and not escape
  6. What is the on way flow of lymph from blood capillaries to heart?
    • from blood capillaries to lymph capillaries
    • to lymphatic collecting vessels
    • to lymph trunk
    • to lymph duct (right lymphatic or thoracic)
    • to jugular and subclavian junction
    • to superior vena cava
    • to heart
  7. What 3 things do lymphatic capillaries absorb during inflammation?
    • cell debris
    • pathogens
    • cancer cells
  8. What are lymph capillaries in the intestines?
  9. What do lacteals do?
    absorb digested fat in the intestines
  10. How does lymph move without a pump?
    • muscular pump
    • respriatory pump
    • valves
    • nearby artery pulsations
  11. What drains the lymph nodes and right side of the head and thorax?
    right lymphatic duct
  12. What 2 things does the thoracic duct do?
    • arises from the cisterna chyli
    • drains 3/4 the body
  13. What are the principle lymphoid organs of the body?
    lymph nodes
  14. Where are lymph nodes found?
    clustered along lymphatic vessels
  15. What are 2 functions of lymph nodes?
    • filtration
    • immune system
  16. What happens when lymph nodes are performing filtration?
    macrophages (previously monocytes) destroy microoganisms + debris
  17. What do lymph nodes do for the immune system?
    • monitor
    • activate
    • attack foreign invaders
  18. What are the two regions of lymph node structure?
    cortex and medulla
  19. What structure is the bean shaped lymph node surrounded by?
    fibrous capsule
  20. What structure of the lymph node contains follicles with dividing B cells and houses T cells?
  21. What 3 cells does the medulla of the lymph node contain?
    • B cells
    • T cells
    • plasma cells
  22. What do lymphocytes do?
    protect against antigens
  23. What are antigens?
    foreign proteins
  24. What 3 places are T cells found?
    • circulating continuously in blood
    • lymph nodes
    • lymphatic stream
  25. What do B cells produce and what does it do?
    • plasma cells
    • secrete antibodies
  26. What do antibodies do to antigens?
    antibodies immobilize antigens
  27. What tissues are lymphoid organs composed of?
    reticular fibers/ reticular connective tissue
  28. What are the 5 lymphoid organs?
    • tonsils
    • thymus
    • spleen
    • peyer's patches (in intestines)
    • appendix
  29. Do lymphoid organs filter lymph?
  30. What do marcophages do in the lymphatic system?
    • phagocytize foreign substances
    • activate T cells
  31. What do reticular cells do?
    form a network to supports other cell types in lymphoid organs
  32. What is the largest lymphoid organ?
  33. What are the distinct areas of the spleen?
    red and white pulp
  34. What do lymph nodes and the spleen have in common?
    surrounded by fibrous capsule
  35. What part of the spleen contains mostly lymphocytes and is most involved in immune functions?
    white pulp
  36. What is the red pulp of the spleen's 2 functions in the lymphatic system?
    • macrophages remove worn out RBCs
    • platelets are stored
  37. Where does hemopoeisis take place in the fetus?
    red pulp of the spleen
  38. How does the thymus influence the lymphatic system?
    matures T cells
  39. What forms a ring of lymphatic tissue around the pharynx?
  40. What of the tonsils traps and destroys bacteria and foreign objects as they enter the pharynx?
    epithelial tissue that forms crypts
  41. What are the 4 tonsils?
    • palantine
    • lingual
    • tubal
    • pharyngeal/adenoid/nasopharynx
  42. Where are peyer's patches found?
    distal portion of small intestine
  43. What are isolated clusters of lymphoid tissue, like tonsils, but located in the small intestine?
    peyer's patches
  44. Where is the appendix?
    off the large intestine
  45. What is MALT?
    • muscousa associated lymphatic tissue
    • peyer's patches, tonsils, appendix
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