Name all the forms of carbohydrates that we as humans can use. (9)
Name all the forms of carbohydrates that we as humans CANNOT use. (3)
Humans lack the enzyme necessary to digest which form of carbohydrate? (which type of linkage)
beta 1,4 glycosidic linkage
Most carbs in nature exist as ?
high MW polysaccharides
Name 3 high MW polysaccharides (carbs).
What are polyhydroxyl aldehydes and polyhydroxyl ketones?
Define: 1 sugar molecule with a carbon number ranging from 3 to 7 or more carbons.
What do we call a 6 membered heterocycle ring?
What do we call a 5 membered heterocycle ring?
Define: 2 or more monosaccharides hooked together.
Name 3 disaccharides (and give their layman name).
sucrose: table sugar
maltose: plant sugar
lactose: milk sugar
A polysaccharide that is a precursor to D-glucosamine?
This polysaccharide carb is an anticoagulant, consists of alpha D glucuronic acid, alpha L iduronic acid, alpha D glucosamine and N-acetyl-alphaD glucosamine that is sulfated in a number of positions. It inhibits the formation of fibrins.
This polysaccharid carb is a matrix gel material that is lubricant for the joints.
This polysaccharide carb is a readily available energy source for humans that consists of alpha 1,4 and alpha 1,6 bonded polymer of glucose.
_____ are proteins that are covalently bonded to polysaccharides?
______ are carbohydrates that contain lipids?
Which plasma proteins are glycosylated?
all except albumin
Clotting factors, hormones, antibodies, cellular and extracellular membranes, and many other proteins are all what???
T/F: carbohydrates are highly variable.
What type of molecules exist with highly variable stereochemistry, different glycosidic linkages and sequence variations of the basic sugar units?
What type of bonding is seen in carbs?
bonded via a protein amino or hydroxyl group with the sugar molecule
Why are the varying glycosylated patterns of glycoproteins important?
they have been shown to influence molecular targeting and cell-cell recognition
Which subtype of carbs tend to show a balance b/w catabolism and synthesis?
What causes Gaucher disease?
a buildup of glycolipids b/c they lack hydrolase enzymes that degrade them
T/F: in water, alpha D-+-glucose is in equilibrium with beta D-+-glucose.
How do plants make carbs?
polysaccharides are formed via ______________ in plants?
UDP (uridine diphosphoglucose)
What are 2 medicinally useful sugar alcohols?
This sugar alcohol (carb) is useful in foods, cosmetics and sweeting drugs, and is 70% w/w solution?
_____ is an osmotic diuretic that increases the osmotic gradient in the kidney and can also be used as an excipient?
Is mannitol hygroscopic or non-hygoscopic?
Is sorbitol hygroscopic or not?
yes it is hygroscopic
What drug would you give for severe glaucoma or to treat a head injury? why?
makes you pee a lot
Name 4 medicinally useful sugars (carbs)?
calcium gluconate USP
How can you administer ferrous gluconate?
Who would you give ferrous gluconate to?
What is ferrous gluconate?
an iron supplement
a sugar (carb)
What would you use dextrose USP for?
nutrient and fluid replenishment
What would you use calcium gluconate USP for?
how can you administer calcium gluconate USP?
What would you use D glucuronic acid for? (Glucurone)
certain arthritic conditions
T/F: dextrose USP is a mixture of alpha and beta anomers of glucose obtained by hydrolysis of starch.
Which enantiomer of glucose is dextrose USP?
This sugar is an aid used for tablet and capsule diluent?
lactose NF (milk sugar)
What type of linkage does lactose NF have in it?
beta 1,4 link
T/F: lactose NF has two forms- alpha lactose and beta lactose.
What two sugars make up the lactose molecule?
What sugar is a sweetener and tablet excipient?
Where do we get sucrose NF from?
Which sugar carb is a disaccharide and yields one D-glucose and one D-fructose after hydrolysis?
This sugar is used as a diagnostic aid to test for Celiac disease?
This is a malt sugar, obtained by enzymatic digestion of starch to a disaccharide of D-glucose?
This 2 sugars are used extensively as carb sources for infants or adult invalid formulas?
________ are variable MW polysaccharides obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch?
What is amylum?
This is a modified starch used as a tablet excipient?
pregelatinized starch NF
This carb is isolated from corn and has a high MW?
What is the water-soluble form of starch called?
What is the hot water insoluble form of starch called?
T/F: we cannot digest starch because of its bond linkages.
false; we can
What type of bond linkages does starch have?
What is starch NF used for?
excipient in tabs and caps
80-90% of starches are?
10-20% of starches are?
T/F: we can digest cellulose.
This polysaccharide uses Beta 1,4 linkages to hook together 100-200 Beta-D-glucose molecules?
This carb is found in plants as a supportive structure (wood)?
Name the 10 useful cellulose derivatives.
cellulose acetate phthalate NF
carboxymethylcellulose sodium USP
ethyl cellulose NF
methyl cellulose USP
powdered cellulose NF
microcrystalline cellulose NF
This carb can be used as a surgical aid?
This carb/cellulose is a tablet diluent?
microcrystalline cellulose NF
this carb/cellulose can be used as a tablet diluent, adsorbant, or suspending agent?
powdered cellulose NF
this carb/cellulose swells up after you add water to it?
methyl cellulose USP
this carb/cellulose is used as a tablet BINDER?
ethyl cellulose NF (ethyl ether)
What is the brand name of oxidized cellulose?
This carb/cellulose is a local hemostatic agent used to control hemorrhage, promotes blood clotting?
Oxycel (oxidized cellulose)
What do we use HPC (hydroxypropylcellulose USP) for?
topical protectant of the eye (ophthalmic solutions USP): contact lenses or artificial tears
This carb/cellulose can be used for tablets USP as a cathartic, ophthalmic solutions USP as a topical protectant (contacts, artificial tears), as a suspending agent, tablet excipient, viscosity increasing agent, thickening agent, or as a bulk laxative?
methyl cellulose USP (methyl ether)
This cellulose carb can be used to enteric coat tabs, and is resistant to acid in the stomach, but is soluble in the basic intestinal tract?
cellulose acetate phthalate NF
This cellulose carb is necessary to produce colloidon USP, and is also used for various coating purposes on tabs?
This cellulose carb is also called the soluble gun cotton, which is made by treating cotton with nitric and sulfuric acid to produce cellulose tetranitrate?
this cellulose carb is used as a suspending agent, tab excipient, viscosity increasing agent, a tablet USP cathartic, and as an emollient-type bulk laxative with excellent lubricating properties?
carboxymethylcellulose sodium USP (CMC)
Which 2 cellulose carbs are used as bulk laxatives?
Which 2 cellulose carbs are used in ophthalmic solutions USP?
T/F: heparin is a carbohydrate.
T/F: high MW heparins are better for the patient than low MW.
false; low is best
Name the 4 low MW heparins.
What type of carb is acarbose (Precose)?
an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor
________ inhibits the enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of dextrin carbs in the intestine therefore delaying their digestion?
This carb is used in the adjunct treatment of diabetes mellitus but may cause diarrhea b/c it inhibits the absorption of a particular sugar, dextrin?
How would you administer a low MW heparin product?
subQ into the stomach muscle
can be done at home
What tissues can you get heparin from?
Where does most of heparin come from?
cow and pig intestine and lung mucosa
______ is a highly negatively charged, polyanionic electrolyte that is located on the surface of vessels and cells?
____ is a mucopolysaccharide carb that is found in nearly all types of animal tissues that possess a high # of O- and N- sulfate groups and some N-acetyl groups?
What is the avg. MW of heparin sodium?
What is the MOA of heparin sodium?
General: involves serine protease clotting factors and the serine protease inhibitor antithrombin III (ATIII)
T/F: heparin sodium is given IV to prevent thrombosis/clotting pre-surgery.
How does heparin sodium prevent a clot?
induces a conformational change in the ATIII protein
this allows ATIII to irreversibly inhibit serine based clotting factors like Factors X, XI, XII, and IX (9,10,11,12)
by inhibiting these clotting factors, prothrombin is not converted to thrombin
no thrombin= no fibrinogen to fibrin
no fibrin matrix= no clot
T/F: heparin sodium can inhibit platelet aggregation to a certain extent.
What is the antidote used to reverse the anticoagulation of heparin?
What do you have to watch for if you want to give the antidote protamine sulfate?
anaphylaxis could occur in patients allergic to fish
T/F: heparin can also encourage fibrinolysis to occur.
Where is heparin metabolized?
in the liver by hydrolysis
What two forms does heparin come in?
How would you monitor heparin anticoagulation?
prothrombin time assay
T/F: heparan and heparin are the same.
How does protamine sulfate reverse heparin effects?
it is a polycation so it interacts with heparin (a polyANION) neutralizing its effects
T/F: low MW heparins are just fragments of regular heparin that have been depolymerized.
What is the avg MW of low MW heparins and what is the size range?
What are the benefits of low MW hep over regular hep?
avoid a lot of side effects
less platelet inhibition
T/F: generally, you can give a lower dose of LMW heparin than you can of HMW heparin for the same therapeutic effect.
The purpose of low MW heparin is to enrich the polysaccharide with the unique _________ region that binds to ATIII?
How many unique polysaccharide fragments could you see in a low MW heparin?
What are the 2 main differences b/w HMW and LMW heparins?
1: LMH hep have less undesirable bleeding side effects when compared to unfractionated hep
2: LMH has less ability to prolong activated thromboblastin time (APTT), but it is still able to inhibit Factor X
*it is more selective and does not inhibit other clotting factors like 9, 11, and 12
*has more anti-Factor Xa activity than anti-thrombin activity
What are the 4 fat-soluble vitamins?
What are the two classes of vitamins?
T/F: we have significant stores of fat-soluble vitamins in the liver.
These are readily absorbed through the intestinal mucosa?
How many micrograms of all trans-retinol does 1.0 IU or USP contain?
These vitamins are important for sperm production, epithelial tissue growth, bone growth, vision, protein synthesis, reproduction and embryonic development?
What are the 4 units used to express vitamin A?
RE: retinol equivalents
T/F: all compounds that possess biological activity similar to retinol can be called vitamin A.
T/F: vitamin A deficiency is not very common
Fish liver oil is the best source of what vitamin?
Plant and dairy sources of Vitamin A are in what form?
Vitamin A from animals occurs in what form?
What two ways is vitamin A absorbed?
passive diffusion: enhanced by fatty food
facilitated diffusion: via enterocytes
Where is RBP stored?
How is vitamin absorbed by facilitated diffusion?
enterocytes convert retinol into 2 types of esters for transport
the esters are incorporated into chylomicrons that enter the lymph system
when they get into general circulation, the liver hepatocytes take them up and cleave them back into retinol
the retinols are coupled to RBP (retinol binding protein)
RBP is then stored in Stellate cells
they go into general circulation transport by a protective transport complex
Vitamin A in animals is synthesized from carotenoids obtained in the diet from what foods?
deep green, yellow and orange fruits and veggies
What form of vitamin A is a hormonal signal to epithelial cells in the skin?
What form of vitamin A is a neuronal signal to the brain for vision at night?
What is the typical path of the different forms of vitamin A?
retinOL (Vitamin A1) ----> 11-cis retinAL
11-cis retinAL -----> retinoic acid
11-cis retinAL + visible light -----> all trans-retinAL
What is nyctalopia?
If you are deficient in vitamin A, what symptoms might you see?
long bone overgrowth
degeneration of mucus membranes=GI problems
Which vitamin is highly teratogenic?
What is the final end product of vitamin A biochem that is responsible for vision?
What molecule represents Vitamin A USP?
What are two other names for vitamin A USP?
all trans retinol
vitamin A alcohol
What is the brand name of tretinoin USP?
What would you use Retin-A (tretinoin USP) for?
topical txt for acne
also for APL (cancer)
What is an important caution to give with tretinoin (Retin-A) use?
What is the MOA of Retin-A (tretinoin)?
decreased adhesion of corneocytes
increased proliferation of follicular epithelium
What is the molecular form name of Retin-A (tretinoin)?
What is the brand name of isotretinoin USP?
Which vitamin A is used to treat very severe acne?
How long would you typically be using accutane for acne?
Which vitamin prescription drug requires to be tested for pregnancy before use?
If you are taking accutane or tegison, what two measures do you need to take to comply?
use birth control because it can end up in semen too
What molecule is accutane?
What is the MOA of accutane/isotretinoin?
inhibits sebaceous glands and follicular function which decreases sebum production, gland size and differentiation
What are the adverse effects of accutane use?
same as hypervitaminosis A (OD)
Which Vitamin A product is a prodrug ester?
Which vitamin drug would you use to treat severe recalcitrant psoriasis?
T/F: accutane and tegison are both in capsule form.
Which vitamin A drug can be detected up to 1 year after stopping use?
Which vitamin A drug undergoes significant first pass effect?
Which vitamin A drug is stored for long periods of time in fat?
competes with sulfonamide antibiotics in the synthesis of folic acid in bacteria?
Used as a sunscreen.
a coenzyme for conversion of precursors to purines
biosynthetic component of folic acid in bacteria
Used to treat fatty liver, liver cirrhosis, tardive dyskinesia and pre-senile dementia?
Where would you find choline in diet?
veggies as lecithin
a component of plasma phospholipids and biomembranes
precursor to SAM and coenzyme responsible for methylation
A saccharide alcohol important for secondary messengers in cell membranes---leads to influx of calcium.
where would you find inositol (in diet)?
most animal tissue
citrus fruits at ripening
What is # is a megadose of vitamin C?
What are 3 bad things that will happen if you OD on vitamin C?
crystal deposits in urine
oxalate deposits in skin
calcium oxalate in renal tubules
What is another name for vitamin H?
Symptoms if you are deficient in biotin/vitamin H?
What vitamin will you not absorb and become deficient in if you eat too many egg whites (avidin)?
Why is biotin important?
for process of carboxylation everywhere
Where will you get biotin in your diet?
veggies like alfalfa, grass, spinach, string beans
Which water soluble vitamin is readily absorbed in the GI tract and is excreted in the urine unchanged?