Why are the DV's set?
for groups to cover population needs
what is the strength of the DV?
- they allow for comparisions betweeen foods
- if it is a good source of something or a low source
If your meeting your DV what else is likely?
that you are meeting your other nutrient needs because they are on the high side of the DV values that are safe
what is the weakness of DV's?
they are not good goals for individuals
how many kcal is the DV based on and what does the % of DV on a food label represent?
- based on a 2000 kcal diet
- it represents % os stndards the DRI from a serving of food
what are the simple CHO's and what happens when they get into out bodies?
- they are mono/disaccharides
- they get rapidly abs into the body because they need minial digestion.
- when eaten they provide a larger amount of BG than other CHO's
what are monosacch's and do they need to be digested?
they are simple sugars, and no digestion required
what are the monosaccharides?
- glucose (dextrose old name): blood sugar because all CHO get converted to sugar (also happen in food in disacch).
- fructose: found naturally in fruits and honey; we put in processed food like cereals, desserts, soda
- galactose: part of lactose (dairy, milk)
what are disscaharides and must they be digested?
they are sugarss compased of pairs of mono's and they need a little digestio done by enzyme of GI
what are the disaccharides?
- maltose (glc+glc)
- lactose (gal+glc): sugar in milk
- sucrose( frc + glc): found in plant food also table sug. and brwn sug.
what are polyssachs?
complex cho's that are composed of many monosacch's linked together to make long strands/chains
what is one type of polyssach and food examples of it?
- starches: plant based storage form of glc (body brk down to glc for energy)
- ex: potato, grain, legumes(dry beans)-not string bean
what is a second type of polysach and where is it found?
- glycogen: storage form of glucose energy
- found in: muscle + liver, animal bodies
- not found in plants
- made of hundreds of glc units
what is a thrid type of polysacch, what does it provide, and where is it found?
- fiber: prvides little kcal because not digested by enzyme
- provides struc. to plants stem, roots, leaves, etc
- found in veggies, fruit, grain, legumes
- help with bulk and aid of elimination
- high fiber diets many prevent chronic dz (help lower cholest because bind to it) :cancers, CVD DM
how much energy do all simple +complex cho's provides?
except for fiber, they all provides 4 kcal/g
how much energy does alcohol provides?
7 kcal/g, not a nutrient because doesnot provide anythng
what are food sources of cho's?
almost any plant source: startchy veggies, grains, fruits, bean/legumes, somw milk too (but lower)
what doe proteins provide our bodies with?
a.a's: building blocks of pro's that contain N
How many essential a.a's are there and how do we get them? how do we get non-aa's?
- there are 9 essential aa's that we need to get from food
- non-essential aa's we can make them and not need to get
how does the body use proteins?
- 1. main use to builld structures, maintain muscle, organs, bone tissues, make enzymes, hormones, rbc's
- 2. they also supply kcal
what are high quality pro's and what foods yield them?
- foods that have all essential aa's (90%)
- sources: milk, cheese, flesh meats, eggs, soy, tofu
what else can yield high quality proteins and some food examples?
- combintion of plant products can yeild it
- ex: bean, legumes, grains
what is misleading about high quality pro's?
- that meat is the best source and thats not true because they also rpovide a lot of fats!
- high quality = 90% meat, dairy, egg
- incomplete pro = 60-70% nuts, seeds
where is pro deficiency rare?
in developed countries (us)
what can pro deficiency lead to in adults?
muscle loss, reduce resistance, impaired immune function, kidney/heart problems
what can pro dieficincy lead to in children?
- kwashiorkor: severe pro malnutrition
- characterized by fatty liver, very skinny, large belly because of adema, swellin, infection
- cause is unclear
what are food sources of pro?
animal products: dairy ,flesh foods, soy, tofu, bean/legumes
what do lipids include?
fat in any food, oil or cholest
what are fats and oild made of?
TG's: 3 fa's and glycerol backbone
what are fa's?
- the fat soluble component in fats in food
- 95% fat in diet atre TG, other 5% are phospholipids
what are the three types of fats?
- 1. TG's: fat from diet (95% tg, 5% phospho)
- 2. phospholpids: used to make cell mem.
- 3. sterols: used to make bile, hormones vit D- made of cholest/
what are the functions of lipids?
- 1. provide energy; fat/oil more calorie dense than cho or pro
- 2. help make sex hormones; components of cell mem, needed to carry fat-sol vit
- 3. have efa's: required for growth and health
what are the 2 fa's the body cant make?
linoleic and alfa-linolenic acids; can be incorporated into phospholipds and they help with CNS and brain
what is linoleic acids a member of and what are sources of it?
- omega 6's of fa's
- veggie oils, meat, human milk
what is an omega 6 we can make and what is a primary component of?
archidonic acids made from linoleic acid, and is component of CNS
what type of omega to us get more of?
omega 6 than omega 3
what are large amounts of linoleic acids used for?
to store body fat
what family is alpha-linolenic a part of?
what are good sources of linolenic acid?
dark green leafy veggies, veggie oil, flaxseed
what are epa and dha?
- what are made from linolenic acids
- the process of making is slow, and may not make enough to meet amounts
what are good sources of epa and dha and what can it provide?
- cold fish, shellfish, human milk
- health benefits (cvd related)
what is a serving of fish and how much shouls we eat?
- 3 oz
- 2-3 servings per week because contaiminants: heavy metls(mercury, pesticides)
what do we call fish when free of mercury?
what do americans eat too much of, what should we eat, and what are the source?
- eat too much omega 6, eat mor omega 3
- get it from flank oil, fish,canola oil, dglv
what are fa's?
part of chemical struc of fats
what are all TG'S?
sat ft, trans fat, unsat fat, monounsat fat, polyunsat fat, oils, lard
what are sat fat, where are they, what can they leas too?
- they can raise blood cholest( ldl)
- they have NO double bond between C
- are solid at rt
- can find in almost all type of ditary fat (butter, cheese, meat, dairy) (except tropical oils: palm/coconut)
what are the 2 types of unsat. fa's?
- MUFA(monounsat) and PUFA(polyunsat)
- they have more than 1 double bond (more double bonds, the less stable so can become rancid)
where do mufa and pufa comr from and what do they include?
- from plant sources
- include essential f.a's, epa, and dha
what do oxidized/rancid fats have?
they have free radicals that csn destroy nutrients and contribute to cancer
why are plant sources of fats/oils better for health?
- to lower LDL, and lower risk of heart dz
- monousat might raise HDL
what doe all oils and fats have?
- mixture of all 3 types fa's (mono, poly, sat), just in different porprtions
- olive oils also have sat fat
what does hydrogenation do?
- add H to veggie oils to change chemical struc. to reduce double bonds in oil
- makes oils more spreadable (crisco,shortening,etc)
what do hydrogented fats contain more of?
trans fats, sat fats change from cis to trans (can happen in nature, but low amounts)
what are benefits of hygrogenation?
longer shelf life, resistant to oxidation, good for baking, higher smoke point, save money
what do trans fats raise, and what happens wonce oild is hydrogenated??
- they raise blood cholest, more than sat fats
- theyare worse than sat fats! =(
what is cholesterol and some importnt things about it?
- it is a fat solubl substance found in animals only!
- component of cell mem., brain
- cells would fall apart with out cholest
- too much can raise blood cholest
what is cholest a precursor for, what does it convert?
- to convert substances into healthy stuff for us
- hormones, vit d., sex hormones
does cholest raise blood cholest as much as sat/trans fat?
no, thery are much worse
what are sources of cholest?
eggs, meat, milk products, butter
what are the recommemded amounts of cho, pro, fat, fiber per day?
- cho: 45-60%
- pro: 10-35%
- fiber: women 25 g, men 35 g
why has fat % intake changesd?
because it is more important about the type you eat
what is the effect of high amounts of ldl cholest?
raises risk of heart dz
which fats raise ldl, and are unhealthy and what happens it u get too much?
- cholest, sat, trans fats
- obesity, heart dz, cancers
what is key to do when considering fats?
replace trans/sat with mono/polyunsat.
what foods are high in sat fat???
beef, pork, lamb, most of chicken/turkey (skin + dark) butter, lard, tropical oils, veg, shortneing, dairy products
what are mono and poly sats known for?
having sat fat too, but lower amounts
what are foods lower in sat fat??
1% milk/skim milk, non-fat cheese, white turkey/chicken no skin, shrimp.
what is specific about lean and extra lean meat?
that it can be misleading because people may think its good for them.
what is the general extra lean ground beef labeled?
15-16% fat on label
what is the example of calc of fat by kcal?
162 kcal fat/ 299 total kcal= % fat by kcal
what is the % of full fat beef/cheese?
what meats are less than 50% fat by kcal?
pork, beef, lamb
what are the percentages of milk's fats?
- whole = 49-50%
- 2% = 37
- 1% = 18
- fat free = 0
whatis the first class of vitamins, examples, wherte stored, and there uses?
- fat soluble vit= dispersed/dissolved in fat/oils
- vit a,d,e,k
- can be stores a period of time, several months
- stored in liver and fatty tissue
- help build body
- have higher toxcicity than water soluble, soo beee carfeful!!
- (vit a, d most toxic)
what is the second type of vit?
- water soluble= found in water components of foods
- less toxic
- 1. b complex vit's: thiamin (b1), riboflavin (b2) niacin (b3), folate, vit b12
- 2. vit C
- body has limited capacity to store them (except vit b12, 3-5 yrs)
- excess excretion into urine
do vitamins provide energy?
no, just help with structures
how to vitamins act as coenzymes?
they combine with enzyme to help it work, to do its job, help liberate food
what is metabolism?
glucose to energy of body fat(stored)
in addition to coenzymes what to vitamins act as?
- vitamins c, e help prevent damage to cells
which pigment in fruits + veggies acts as antioxidant and what is it a precursor of?
- beta carotene
- to make vit a!
our bodies make what type of agents and how can they be stopped??
- oxidizing agents that come from metabolism
- antioxi. help prevent oxidizing agents and other harmful stuff (pollutants, chemicals, etc)
what are proxidants?
when you take too many antioxidants and cn lead to be these and be bad
how many essential minerals are needed in the body and the common ones?
- ca, p, mg, fe, zn, f, se,k, i
what are the functions of minerals?
- help form bone, teeth, strucs
- needed for contraction of muscles (mg, ca)
- for nerves to conduct lectrical impulses
- maintain amounts of water in tissue, allow for suck and take
- help maintain acid/base balance
what doe the body abs most?
the macornutrients that pass trhu GI
Are 100% of vitamins abs in gi?
no, but most of them are
what do minerals form complxes with?
- other minerals and with fiber
- they are less readily abs
what is individual-level assesment and the 4 componenets?
- assesing nutritional status of an individual
- 1. clinical/physical (exam)
- 2. dietary
- 3. anthropometric (physical)
- 4. biochemical (labs)
what does clinical/physical assesment involve and what do they look fo?
- inspection of a person by a trained perseon (rd)
- look for nutritional deficiencies:
- * excessive/inadequate body fat (not get enough nutrients, ask risk for chronic dz
- *palness (suggest fe deficient)
- *bruises on skin (cause by vit k deficient)
- *easy plucked/brittle hair (protein defieicent)
- all cant be used to solely determine nutrition problems, may relate to other things
what are the methods of assesment for dietary?
- 24 hr recall: (rd ask what they drank/food in last 24 hrs); they determine weight of vol. they ate and put into program to see nutrient intake (low/high); this is least reliable (because can lie); least expensive and time (15-20 min); if want more accurate do 3x or more
- 24 hr food record: subjet record food/drink in 24 hrs; recrod weight+vol food; works best when person trained; more accurate; can do 3x
- Diet history: long interview with rd including 24 hr recall and 24 hr food record; more time involved and extensive; see normal habits; results adjusted to reflex intake (1 hr); most accurate info!
what is involved in anthropometric assesment?
- measure body sizes like height, weight, % body fat, bone density, headm waist cirmcumference
- very useful to determine nutrition status
- they are frquently not done correctly (be aware)
what is involved in biochemical assesment?
- lab tests that measure nutrient levels in body, measure body pro, etc.
- if rd see's signs of behavior they may ask doctor to perform tests
- they are one of the most accurate methods
after all assesments what might an rd do?
- give people education on fe rich foods
- consume vit c (for better abs)
- use fe skillets
- cooking techniques to increase fe
- develop solutions to solve problems
what is principle # 3?
health related problems related to nutrition originate in the cell
what is homeostasis?
- maintain internal environment
- balance fluis, nutrient, gas, temp, etc
when can problems arise with nutrients and homeostasis?
- when nutreints differ from whats available
- this disruption can initiate disease and negaitvely effect tissues
what happens when not get enough folate?
aa methionince converts to cystein with help of floate (b12), so when its not present them methionine gets stuck and is homocysteine, high levels build up inarteries and can lead to heart disease
what is principle 4?
- poor nutirion can result from inadequate intake and excessive levels of nutrients
- lead to toxicity and deficinecy
what are marginal deficinencies?
state betwen optimal and poor intake of nutrient that can make physical/behavior changes
what are examples of marginal deficiencies?
- ex: vit c can cause scurvy (poor wound heal); marginal defiencies may be that there is delayed healing, but not scurvy
- ex: depend on how far along deficiency is(if reversible of not)
- ex: if vit goes too long then get permenant blindness
what is principle 6 what is malnutrition?
poor intake result from excees or lack of kcal/nutrients
what is principle 7?
some groups are higher risk for malnourishment
what is principle 8?
- poor nutrition can effct development of certain dz
- diet high in fats: heart dz
- diet low in fruit/veg: heart dz, cancers
- poor nutrition can lead to: htn, stroke, t 2 dm, obese
what is principle 9?
- adequacy, variety, and bal;ance are key charact of healthy diet
- healthy diets have different foods
- varitey is good: eat from all food groups!
what is nutrient density and example foods?
- amount of nutrients per kcal (mg/kcal): for vit, min, pro
- ex: white meat, whole wheat, brn rice, whole veg/fruit, lw fat dairy
what is empty kcal and examples of foods, and why arent they good?
- foods that supply kcal, but very little nutrients
- ex: table sug, soda, alcohol, honey, fats (not oils), brwn sug
- they are nutrient theives!! steal nutrients ti process kcals
what are foods low in nutrient density?
- chips, french fires, desserts, top ramen, pizza, etc
- can lead to bad effects(mental/physical) and high chance dz
what is principle 10?
- there are no good or bad fats- true!
- discretionary kcals(measure moderation)= 267 kcals/day
what do americans have no clue about?
- 1. no good/bad fats
- 2. healthy diet is portion sizes (healthy eating index)
- 3. help educate clients on what portions are and moderation
what is enrichment and some foods?
- replace thiamin, niacin, riboflvain, fe that are lost when grains are refined.
- enrich foods to replace lost nutrients
- white rice and bread loose more nutrients
what is fortification and a common one?
- addition of vitamins + minerals to food
- adding vit d to milk