1. How does Linux maintain a user's configuration information for a given application? How does Windows do it?
    • Linux: User's configuration information is kept in the /home directory in the applications\configurations sub-folder.
    • Files saved to config text files.

    Windows: Stored in the Registry.
  2. What is the difference between the configuration of a linux server and a workstation?
    Server: minimal install dedicated to the purpose for that server, minmally configured.

    W/S: Has tool sets, applications, GUI's that support the application use of it.
  3. What type of planning should a system administrator do before going through the disk partitioning process?
    Look at the disk space and plan how to set up the partitions and what file system type to use.
  4. What si the recovery process during a system install when a wrong menu selection results in serious problems continuing with the install?
    Start Over!
  5. What is the difference between the /bin, /usr/bin, and /usr/local/bin directories?
    /bin - boot system essential files needed for system to run.

    /usr/bin - standard system application and tools are installed.

    /usr/local/bin - additional apps and tools installed by user.
  6. What purpose does the /home directory serve? How is it referenced in the login process?
    Home directory is where the users default directory is located.

    The /home directory is defined as a field in the password file.
  7. What is the RPM tool used with Red Hat compatible systems?
    It is the Red Hat Package Manager. It is a tool used to install application on to system in Binary form.

    • YUM - Tool that sits on top of RPM.
    • KYUM - Graphical user interface.
  8. What does the message "error: Failed dependencies" mean when using the RPM tool? How is the error resolved?
    It means that another tool or library is required to be installed before this application can be installed. First, find the dependency tool or library and install it. RPM usually have those dependencies. If not, you need to find them on the web.
  9. Describe the process of acquiring the source code for building an application from source. How is it packaged? What command is used when you have the package on the local machine?
    • 1st: Find the tarball (or source code) on the net.
    • 2nd: It is packaged in a tarball (.tgz or .bzz) file.
    • 3rd: tar xzf filename.tgz is used to unzip the source code.
  10. Give the 2 steps required to "build" the application. Explain the purpose of each step.
    • 1) Configure: probes the system to determine the capabilities of the system.
    • 2) Make: does a build; pulls together all the files needed for the package and creates a single application. Single program that is runnable.
  11. Explain why the /etc/shadow password file exists.
    To provide protection to the actual password.
  12. How is a user added to the Linux system?
    Use the useradd program or command.
  13. What is the purpose of the SetUID bit?
    Allows the program to run at elevated privledges.
  14. What are Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) used for?
    The PAM system is used to have a generic interface to the authentication systems of the computer. Based on shared libraries.
  15. What is the difference between a hard link and a symbolic link?
    Hard link is a reference to another inode and cannot cross file systems/partitions.

    Soft link is a reference to a file name and can cross file systems/partitions.
  16. What is the command used to terminate a process?
    What is the problem with using this command?
    Kill. It sends a signal to a process. The process then does an orderly shutdown.

    Problem? A "kill -9" command can be used instead. This ignores all signals and shuts the process down no matter what it is doing. System can be left in an indeterminent state.
  17. What is GRUB used for?
    What is MBR?
    What is the relationship between GRUB and the MBR?
    GRUB: a boot loader that allows you to load the UNIX system and boot it. The config file allows you to have multiple systems to boot into.

    MBR: Master Boot Record. If the system has a MBR, it is on the first sector of that system. It has a specific format and contains data and partition information.

    GRUB then allows you to use the MBR data to boot into the first phase of the boot process.
  18. What are run levels used for on a Unix system?
    What is the role of the run level directories (rc.d) in the boot process?
    Run levels are boot configurations for a Linux system. Each run level defines the configuration of a running linux system. 0-6, s, S are the modes.

    The run level directories have partitioned the different run level scripts based upon functionality.
  19. Explain what i-nodes are on a Unix system. Where are filenames stored?
    Inodes: is the data structure that contains the information about the file and provides for access to the location of the file.

    Filename: is NOT in the inode. Inode references the directory location of the file as a pointer. Directories contain the file names.
  20. What is the relationship of the mount command and the fstab?
    fstab: is a text file that states the different file systems and the characteristics of them.

    Mount -a: it reads the file system table and mounts everything listed in that table.
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CS392 Mid-Term #1 Q/A