Child ad.

  1. prevelance of psychological malx
    • widespread but still unknown
    • usually imbedded in other forms of maltreatment as a "tag along"
  2. impact of pychological malx
    • intrapersonal problems
    • emotional problems
    • social competency problems/antisocial functioning
    • learning problems
    • physical health problems
  3. defiition of psychological malx:
    repeated pattern of caregiver behavior or extreme incident that convey to children that they are woethless, flawed, unloved, unwanted, endangered, or only of value in meeting another's needs
  4. Subtypes of psychological malx
    • spurning
    • terrorizing
    • isolating
    • exploiting/corrupting
    • denying emotional responsiveness
    • mental health/medical/educational neglect
  5. interventions for psychological malx
    • legal intervention: hard to prove by itself
    • investigation: requires clinical expertise
    • therapy
  6. therapy for psychological malx:
    PCIT Parent child interaction therapy
    clinician coaches parent to respond to children with warmth, nurturance and support
  7. therapy for psych. malx:
    Incredible Years Teacher Training
    teaches pro-social behaviors and behavior management skills, increases empathy and academic performance, decrease disruptive behaviors
  8. Child responses to psychological malx
    • internalizing behaviors
    • externalizing behaviors
  9. internalizing behaviors
    depression, anxiety, low self esteem, eating disorders, suicidal ideation, negative life views, isolation
  10. Externalizing behaviors
    aggression, noncompliance, poor impulse control, disruption
  11. What does it mean for a child to be exposed to DV/IPV?
    • prenatal exposure
    • witness/directly observe
    • hears but does not see
    • is victimized during the DV incident
    • participates against mothers or siblings
    • tries to stop the violence
    • observes initial effects
    • exposed to aftermath
  12. Co-occurance od IPV and child abuse:
    • 74% of IPV happens when child is present in home
    • Child who witnesses IPV is 15 times more likely to be abused
  13. risk factors for IPV
    child exposed to family violence is 189% more likely to experience violence in own adult relationships
  14. risk factors for IPV
    Intrafamilial (as perp or victim)
    Single mother, absent father, older mother's and older children, mothers with substance abuse history,
  15. Risk factors of IPV
    poverty, unemployment, neighborhood crime, money stress, poor community health, poor education
  16. risk factors for IPV
    male batterers abuse their children twice as often as the abused women themselves do; both males and females at risk for normalizing violence in relationships
  17. U.N. Convention on the rights of the child:
    2 optional protocols were adopted on may 25, 2000-
    • 1. restricts the involvemnent of children in military conflicts
    • 2. prohibits the sale o children, child prostitution, and child pornography
  18. WHO neglect definition (1999)
    • Inattention or omission by the caretaker to provide for the child: health, education, emotional development, nutrition, shelter, and safe living conditions
    • Includes the failure to properly supervise and protect children from harm
  19. U.S. Child Welfare definitions of neglect
    • Omissions in care
    • By parent or caregiver
    • Causing significant harm, or significant risk of harm
  20. types of neglect
    • physical
    • medical
    • dental
    • supervisional
    • emotional
    • educational
  21. physical neglect
    inadequate food, clothing, shelter, and hygeine
  22. medical neglect
    failure to provide prescribed medical care or to seek medical care in a timely manner
  23. Dental neglect
    failure toprovide adequate dental care or treatment
  24. Supervisional neglect
    failure to provide age appropriate supervision
  25. Degree of neglect
    • first degree-obvious, ongoing, chronic
    • second degree-a single act of negligence or inattention that puts a child at risk of harm (ex. not locking gate around pool)
    • third degree-either a single act of neglect that results from circumstances beyond the control of the caretaker
  26. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) 2009
    • federally sponsored program to collect data on child abuse and neglect
    • program began in 1990, 2009 is the 20th report
    • data is collected from CPS cases
    • 3.3 million referrals made to CPS involving 6 million children
    • 61.9% were screened in for a response by CPS
  27. Child fatality
    • estimated 1770 children died
    • 80.8% were younger than 4
    • Boys slightly higher at 2.36 per 100,000 and girls at 2.12 per 100,000
    • 1/3 of child fatalities due to neglect exculsively
    • 1/3 caused by multiple malx
  28. Substantiated child malx:
    declined by 2% from 08-09
  29. Child sexual abuse:
    declined by 5% 08-09
  30. Child physical abuse and neglect:
  31. Child malx fatality:
    rose by 3% 08-09
  32. decline in sexual abuse by
    61% 1992-09
  33. Decline in physical abuse by
    55% 92-09
  34. Decline in neglect by
    10% 92-09
  35. S.C. stats 2009
    • 27,473 reports
    • 17,721 screened in
    • 7,062 substantiated
    • 72.4% neglect
    • 34.3% physical abuse
    • 6.5% sexual abuse
    • 3.8% medical neglect
    • 1% psychological malx
  36. NIS 4
    • Congressionally mandated study by keeping children and families safe act 2003
    • Aimed at estimating the national incidence, severity, and demographic distribution od child malx
    • Data is collected by sampling a mx of geo. regions, urban and rural agencies, and major community characteristics (122 countries)
    • A numberof different agencies are involved in each of the study counties
    • 2 sets of standards: endangerment standard and harm standard
  37. Results of NIS 4 study
    • No change in incidence of children endangered (increase in emotional abuse counterbalanced the decrease in other types)
    • Rate of harm declined by 26%
    • Children of lower socioeconomic status had sig. higher malx
    • Kids with no parent in labor force or with unemployment parent had higher malx than employed parents
    • Compared to kids living with married bio. parents
    • nigs had sig. higher rate than whites or mexicans
  38. Examples of risk factors
    • child: disability or prematurity
    • Parent: depression, alcohol, and ordrug abuse, low IQ, limited nurturing
    • family: DV, father uninvolved, many kids
    • Community: social isolation, violence
    • Society: poverty, lack of health insurance
    • Professionals: poor communication, missed red flags
  39. Protective factors
    • child: temperament, intelligence
    • parent: caring, intelligence, resourceful
    • Family: supportive, father involved
    • Community: resources, safe, playgrounds
    • Society: food programs, health insurance
  40. Ace study
    • Neglect co-equalred with other adverse childhood experiences
    • Increased health risk taking
    • Increased mental illness
    • Increased chronic disease
    • Increased lifetime health care costs
    • Dose response curve
  41. Treatment options: programs
    • homebuilders
    • child's haven
    • Families first
  42. Homebuilders
    providing intensive in home services, removing the harm rather than removing the child
  43. Chil's Haven
    provides therapeutic child care and other specialized treatment services to abused, neglected, at risk children 1 month through age 5
  44. Families First
    family group conferencing-the family group is invited to partner with dss in developing their treatment plan for their children and family.
  45. Definition of child sexual abuse
    • Any sexual activity with a child whose age is less than the legal age of consent
    • Includes penetration (oral, vaginal, anal), sexual touching (fondling, forced masturbation), non contact sexual acts (exposure, voyeurism)
    • Offender is usually someone child knows 90%
  46. Prevalence of sexual abuse
    • estimates are that 1 in 4 girls and 1 in 6 boys by age 18
    • Crime data: all crimes, regardless of relationship between offender and child
    • DSS data: only if offender is parent or in loco parentis
    • Clinical data: only from persons/victims in treatment
    • Non-clinical data: general population
  47. Risk factors for sexual abuse
    • girls generally
    • boy and girls if: living without 1 parent; mom is unavailable (think attachment, mental illness, substance abuse, jail), perceives family life as unhappy
    • child is disabled: physically, psychologically, or cognitive impairment
  48. Grooming:
    grooming is a gradual process intended to involve the children, maintain their cooperation, and prevent reporting; force, threat, or fear may be used
  49. Compliant victims
    may view themselves as participating willingly or may trade sex for rewards
  50. Effects of sexual abuse
    • psychological, health, and interpersonal problems
    • polyvictimization increases risk for negative outcomes
  51. effects of sexual abuse:
    risk factors for adverse/negative effects
    • accumulation of traumatic events
    • history or psych problems
    • family history of MI, substance abuse, DV
    • Abuse more serious (severity, duration, violence injuries)
    • negative response to disclosure
  52. Nature of effects
    • avoid memories, circumstances, triggers
    • numb, substance abuse, self- injurious, risky behavior
    • depression anger, alters belief in self/others
    • ptsd
  53. How offenders work
    • may take job orchoose profession for access tochildren
    • insert themselves into a family
    • befriend child/family, supply gifts
    • desensitize by sexual touch/talk; increase to test willingness to consent and likelyhood todisclose
    • progresses to overtly sexual acts
Card Set
Child ad.
7, 10, 13, 14