Chapter 14

  1. The movement of ocean water is driven by differences in
    density and temperature, by wind, and by the moon’s gravity.
  2. Ocean water contains streamlike movements of water called
    ocean currents.
  3. Horizontal, streamlike movements of water that occur at or near the surface of the ocean are called
    surface currents
  4. one of the longest surface currents—it transports 25 times more water than all the rivers in the world.
    Gulf Stream
  5. Surface currents are controlled by three factors:
    global winds, the Coriolis effect, and continental deflections
  6. The apparent curving of moving objects from a straight path due to the Earth’s rotation is called
    the Coriolis effect
  7. When surface currents meet continents,
    the currents deflect, or change direction
  8. Streamlike movements of ocean water located far below the surface are called
    deep currents
  9. deep currents form in parts of the ocean where water density
  10. is the amount of matter in a given space, or volume.
  11. The density of ocean water is affected by
    temperature and salinity—a measure of the amount of dissolved salts or solids in a liquid.
  12. Both decreasing the temperature of ocean water and increasing the water’s salinity increase
    wters density
  13. Water density depends on
    temperature and salinity
  14. is a process in which cold, nutrient-rich water from the deep ocean rises to the surface and replaces warm surface water,
  15. Every 2 to 12 years, the South Pacific trade winds move less warm water to the western Pacific than they usually do
    El Niño
  16. is a periodic change in the eastern Pacific Ocean in which the surface-water temperature becomes unusually cool
    La Niña
  17. A __________ is the highest point of a wave.
  18. A _________ is the lowest point of a wave.
  19. The distance between two adjacent wave crests or wave troughs is a
  20. The vertical distance between the crest and trough of a wave is called the
    wave height
  21. Deep water waves become shallow water waves when they reach deeps of
    less than one half of their wave length.
  22. his movement of water, which carries sand, rock particles, and plankton away from the shore, is called an
  23. When waves hit the shore at an angle, they cause water to move along the shore in a current called a
    longshore current
  24. are white, foaming waves with very steep crests that break in the open ocean before the waves get close to the shore.
  25. are rolling waves that move steadily across the ocean.
  26. are waves that form when a large volume of ocean water is suddenly moved up or down.
  27. A local rise in sea level near the shore that is caused by strong winds from a storm, such as a hurricane, is called a
    storm surge
  28. are caused by the gravitational forces of the moon and sun on the Earth.
  29. The ________ _______ is the main force behind the tides.
    moon’s gravity
  30. The four different types of tides are:
    high tides, low tides, spring tides, and neap tides.
Card Set
Chapter 14
Review Chapter 14