NUTR 144

  1. Humans have been separted from apes for how many years?
    5 million
  2. Humans have been separeted from other humans for how many years?
  3. Why were men hunters and females gatherers?
    Women are the child bearers, hunting is not child friendly.

    Men develop the phsycial characteristics for hunting
  4. What are the skill sets needed for hunting?
    • Strength and ensurance
    • Accurate throwing
    • Good judgement of distance
  5. What kin of skills derived from hunting? Technical or social?
    • Teamwork: when humans hunted they needed to be strategic
    • Technological: tools used for hunting, the idea of proejcting spears, bows and arrows
    • Freezing and aging meat: over time hunters learned that keeping meet away from the fire, helped it last longer
    • Hunting in some cultures is a right of passage into adulthood
  6. Gathering
    What sort of skills are needed?
    • Memory: what types of food are good/bad.
    • Patitience: It can take a long time to pick berries
  7. What sort of social or technical benefits come from gathering?
    • Communicating between families on where to look
    • Technical: development of baskets and carrying tools
    • Learning: Which foods had medicinal benefits
  8. What skills sets are needed for gathering?
    • Patience, perseverance
    • Good vision in dim light
    • good placement memory
  9. What foods where eaten back in the day?
    • Edible roots, reens, acorns, nuts, berries, mushrooms
    • Ancestors of potato, manioc, turnips, onions, radishes, cabbage
    • Women also scooped up small animals that presented themselves
  10. What are the beneifts of fire?
    Keep away animals, warmth, cooking
  11. What was the first cooking method?
    Roasting: this required a fire and a stick (least amount of tools)
  12. What was the first cooking pot made of?
    Leather or animal material: for example: after killing a dear, the food inside was heated up and cooked
  13. How long ago was the first use of fire?
    500,000 years ago, 75,000 years ago
  14. What are the benifits of cooking?
    • It takes a lot of energy to eat raw food
    • Cooked food is easier to digest
    • More nutrients were available after food is cooked
  15. What were some of the reasons that farming took off?
    • Accuminaltion of wealth
    • Population increase
    • Specialization of services
  16. How long ago did farmers start farming?
    10,000 years ago
  17. 1. Health
    2. Leasure Time
    3. Egalitatrian
    4. Domesticated Plants
    5. Environment
    6. Transportation of Plants and Animals
    • 1. Until recently humans have been less healthy than their hunter-gatherer ancestors. Diseases from close contact from domesticated animals and small variety of diet
    • 2. Hunter-gatherer pace is relaxed, farming was hard ass work
    • 3. Less egalitarian society
    • 4. Domesticated plants and animals are less fit
    • 5. Environmental destruction through cutting down of trees, pestisdes
    • 6. When moving those plants to another part of the world, they will not grow the same way
  18. Why switch to agriculture then?
    • Population increase
    • Climate change: end of ice age
    • Huge decrease in large animals
  19. How did the change from HG to farming happen?
    • Most hunter-gatherer activily manage their land: Native Americans
    • Harvesting of wild cerals eventually led to genetic changes: humans shaking trees and seeds falling off
    • When wild sources no longer sufficient to feed the population, you have no choice but to continuing farming
  20. What is food?
    • Any substance the provides nutrients needed to sustain life
    • Each culture defines food differently
  21. How do we eat differently than animals?
    Humans prepare and cook food in a variety of culturally specific ways
  22. What is the omnivores paradox?
    We are flexible but cautious species, attracted to new but preference for the familiar
  23. What animals only eat one type of food?
    Koala and Panda Bears
  24. What else have we made food, other than a source of nutrients?
    • Art Form
    • Commercial Exchange
    • Means of Socializing
    • Distinguisher of Class, Religion, or Nation
    • It can be shared, obstained from, stolen, witheld, offered to deceased or sacrificed
  25. How is food is used as part of collective identify?
    • Distingusih yourself
    • Ettiquette
    • Commericalization, who can eat with whom
    • Symbolic use of food
    • Food can be used as a way to exclude one group from the majority group
  26. What is the Core Complementary Food Model?
    • Core Foods
    • Complementary Foods
    • Secondary Foods
    • Peripheral Foods
  27. What are Core Foods?
    Foods that are eaten on a daily baiss such as rice, wheat, grains, corn, potatoe, pasta
  28. What are Complementary Foods?
    Something that adds flavor to food such as salt, butter, pasta sauce
  29. What are Secondary Foods
    Eatin on a regular basis such as fruits, vegetables and meats
  30. What are Peripheral Foods?
    Foods that are Individual present
  31. What is the Flavor Principle?
    Singature flavors tha are associated with food preparation within a culture
  32. What is the usefulness of spices?
    • Increases palitability
    • Disguises unpleasant tastes
    • Preservation of food
  33. What is a meal element?
    In different cutures, certain meals are served for dinner that are eaten for breakfast in other cultures
  34. What is food order?
    In Asian cultures, all the food is placed on the table at the same time
  35. What is going on in food preparation and service?
    The man or women is cooking the meal, and someone is served first
  36. What is an acculturation process?
    An ethnic group moves into another new majority society and begins to adopt the societies values and habits

    The process can be at both the invididual or group level
  37. Food habibits are the last tradition to change. True or False?
  38. How can food define us as individuals? For vegitarians, openiness to new foods, or picky food eaters
    Vegitarians: are making a statement about their health or political statement

    Openess to new foods shows an openmindedness to things in general

    A picky eater may not be open to try new experiences
  39. What are the classifications of individual food habits?
    • Inedible
    • Edible by animals but not by me
    • Edible by humans but not my culture
    • Edible by my culture by not by me
    • Edible by me
  40. What are some of the things that drive food decisions?
    Cost, Health, Availability, Convenience
  41. Why do we have dining ettiqutte?
    To ensure that there will not be violence at the table and will will remain diners and not dinners
  42. What elements of dinner have carefully prescribed procedures?
    Invitations, dress, arrival tme, responsibilities of the host and guets, pre-dinner behavior, seating arrangements, utensils, dinner conversations
  43. Where do we eat?
    On the go, in the park, in a coutyear, in the mainroom, in the kitchen, in the dining room
  44. In Japanese cultures you eat sitting in chairs at a table?
    False, in Japannese culture, you eat on the ground
  45. In Ancient Egyption culture people ate on the go. True or False?
  46. In Ancient Roman culture, there were slaves that served food. True or False?
  47. What did the Ancient Romans invent that we still use today?
    Table cloths and napkins
  48. Greek culture was a banquette culture. True or False?
  49. Tablecloth can symbolize what?
    Tablecloth can symbolize status in society. Depending on the type of linen used, how clearn the white cloth is.
  50. What do they do differently?
    The lunches for kids can be artistic and finisehd in a short period of time
  51. What is the feeling towards lefthandness?
    It is not positive, as we consider right to be right. For example, he is right, we shake with our right hand
  52. Where we utensils first introduced?
    Utensils were first introduced in China as an extension of our hands
  53. What was the first utensil used?
  54. Knifes doubled as weapons during arguments at the dinner table. True or False?
  55. Knifes were orginally for men only. True or False?
  56. Knifes were originally double sided? True or False
  57. What was the way that ancient civilizations considered spoons?
    The spoon was considerd a bowl with with an arm attached
  58. In the US we use the fork as a knife. True or False?
    False, we use the fork as a spoon
  59. In Europe, they use use a fork to stab pees. True or False?
  60. In England, they push pees on fork upsidedown. True or False?
  61. What was food served on in the early middle ages?
    Large slabs of bread
  62. What was used as a plate in the 1300's?
    Ocassional use of wood or pewter
  63. What as used as a plate in the end of the 1600's?
    Ceramic plates
  64. What was used for plates in the early 1800's in North America?
    Pewter and china plates adopted in North America
  65. In Ancient rome, how may napkins were used and what were they used for?
    lap, neck and leftovers
  66. What was used as a napkin in the middle ages?
    The tablecloth
  67. In the 17th century where were napkins placed?
    Around the neck
  68. In the early 19th century, were were napkins placed?
    In the early 19th century, napkins were placed on the lap
  69. What kinds of things were done before eating?
    hand washing, tasting for poisen, prayer, speeches, ritual offerings, serving of the food
  70. Back in the day what was the policy for dogs at the table?
    Big dogs on the floor, small dogs on the table?
  71. What was the policy for dogs around the table in the 19th century?
    In the 19th century, it was considered barbaric, except at individual family dinners
  72. Back in the day it was considered art to have food on the ground. True or False?
  73. Why is food and religion so important?
    Because food is a very intimate practice
  74. Food practices can be different even within a religion. True or False?
  75. How old is this relgion?
    3000-4000 years old
  76. In Hinduism, the practice of non violence extends to food. True or False?
  77. In Hindu cultures, what is the opinon of the cow?
    In Hindu cultures, the cow is considered sacred because she nourishes people with her milk
  78. In Hinduism, pork and most animals are avoided. True or False?
  79. In Hinduism, what foods are avoided?
    Crabs, food made by lawyers, spies, thiefs, prostitutes, artists, ect.
  80. In Hinduism how many festivals are there?
    In Hinduism there are 18 festivals
  81. In Hinduism, what is Diwali?
    Diwali is the festival of light, which is seen as a triump of good over evil
  82. In Hindiuism, what is fasting?
    Fasting is the process of avoiding a certain practice. So it doesn't necessarily mean not eating food, but could mean not eating meet.
  83. When did Buddhism start?
    Buddhism started around 600BC
  84. Why did Buddhism start?
    As a revolt to the caste system
  85. When did Janism start?
    It started around 600BC
  86. How many people practice Jainsim?
    2 million
  87. What is the belief on Jainism?
    Spiritual independence, equality of all life. There is no belief in god, but that things are governed by natural law
  88. What are the dietary practices of Jainism?
    • Food obtained without unnecesasry cruelty
    • No root vegs.
    • No feast days, just fast days
    • Fasting is part of the festival of holy days
  89. How old is Sikkhism?
    500 years old
  90. How many gods in Sikkhism?
  91. What is the festival in Sikkhims?
  92. What are the Sikh dietary practices?
    • No sustance that can harm the body
    • Avoid food that is killed inhumanely
    • Vegitarianism is encouraged
    • No kosher/hala meal
  93. In Sikkhism, what kind of food is served at Gurdwaras?
  94. How long ago was the religion formed?
    4000 years ago?
  95. Judasim is a religion as well as a nation. True or False?
  96. What is the book of the Jews?
  97. For a Jew: What does Kosher mean?
    Kosher means "fit"
  98. For the Jew: What animals are permitted to eat
    • Mammals with cloven hooves
    • Birds with crop, gizzard, extra talon
    • Fish with fins and scales
  99. For the Jew: What is food is not permitted?
    Reptiles, amphibians, and most invertebrates
  100. Another rule for the Jew Diet?
    The animal must be killed in a ritually prescribed manner
  101. Jew Food Law: Milk and Meat?
    You cannot mix the two. You have wait a certain number of hours before eating them together
  102. For the Jew: what is Sabbath?
    Sabbath is a day of rest, so all the food is prepared in advance
  103. For the Jew: What is the name of reglious new year?
    Rosh Hashanah
  104. For the Jew: What is served at Challah brad?
    Lot of honey, no sour or bitter foods
  105. For the Jew: What is the day of atonement called, and what happens?
    Yom Kippur, where fasting takes place with a light meal to breakfast
  106. Which group is most lack on dietary rules?
  107. Mardi Gras is really for what religion?
  108. What are the fast days for Eastern orthodox Christians
    Wednesday and Friday (vegitarian days)
  109. For Protestants, there are no fast days. True or False?
  110. What are some protestant religions?
    Baptists, Episcopalian, Lutheran, Methodist, Anglicans
  111. Which relgion has the largest population in SoCal?
    7th Day Adventists
  112. When the the 7th day Advenstist orignate?
    In the US in the 1860's
  113. For 7th Day Adventists, there is no tea, coffee, alchohol, or tabacco. True or False?
  114. What is the name of the religion of Latter Day Saints?
  115. Mormans encourage drinking alchohol, tea, coffee, soda, energy drinks and smoking tobacco. True or False?
  116. What is going with Mormans and food?
    Mormans are about self reliance. They stockpile canned food, in case of amigeden
  117. When did Islam originate
  118. What is the book of Islam
  119. What hand to people of Islam eat with?
    Right hand
  120. Islam lists the things you can't eat. True or False?
  121. What does Islam restrict with Food?
    Four footed animals, pig, improperly slaughted animals, blood products, alcohol and drugs
  122. What does Islam allow in terms of food?
  123. What is the name of the Islamaic festivles?
    Ramadan (1 month long), where one re-evaluates their own life and there is no food/liqur from sunrise to sunset
  124. What is the name of the end of Ramadan?
    Eid al-Fitr
  125. What temperature is Yin and Yang?
    • Yin: cold
    • Yang: hot
  126. What is the idea of Yin and Yang?
    If you go out of balance, you will get sick
  127. Where did Yin Yang orginate?
  128. What are some Yin Foods?
    • Raw, soothing, cooked at low temperatures or
    • short periods of time, white or light green in color
    • High in potassium, low in salt
    • Foods that grow above the ground
    • Sour in flavor

    Ex: non root vegetables, fish, green tea, milk
  129. What are some Yang Foods?
    • High-calorie foods, cooked at high heat, spicy,
    • red-orange-yellow in color
    • High in sodium, low in potassium
    • Foods that grow below the ground
    • Foods in high in fat, sugar

    • Meat, Root vegetables, sweets, high calorie
    • foods, wine, shellfish
  130. Yin and Yang: What foods are nuetral?
    Rice, noodles, bread
  131. What part of the body is served by Yin
    Internal Organs, except GI track
  132. What part of the body is served by Yang
    GI track, and external body
  133. When pregant, it is said that you can have an excess in...?
Card Set
NUTR 144
Ying and Yang