Microbiology Exam 2

  1. What R the two parts if adaptive immunity?
    Humoral immunity & Cell-Mediated immunity
  2. Which adaptive immunity is an antibody?
    Humoral Immunity
  3. Primary lymphoid organs
    Bone Marrow & Thymus
  4. 3 parts of lymphoid system
    • Primary lymphoid organs
    • 2ndary lymphoid organs
    • lymphatic vessels
  5. Where do B cells mature?
    Bone Marrow (B Cells mature in Bone Marrow)
  6. Where do T cells mature?
    Thymus (T Cells matue in Thymus)
  7. What happens once cells mature?
    Cells leave primary lymphoid for 2ndary
  8. T or F spleen cleanses blood
  9. T or F lymph nodes cleanse lymph fluid
  10. What R 2ndary lymphoid organs?
    Sites where Lymphocytes gather to encounter antigens
  11. wut is the role of lymphatic vessels?
    Carry lymph to body tissues
  12. Molecule that specifically interacts w/ an antibody or lymphocyte
    Immunogen / Antigen
  13. T or F antigens R MOSTLY protien
  14. Wut is the structure of an antibody?
    Monomer / 4 chains of amino acids held together by disulfide bonds
  15. T or F Constant region is known as Fc region?
  16. Wut is the Fc Constant region used 4?
    To determine class (Fc = Class)
  17. T or F the Variable region binds to a specific Ag
  18. That is the name of the Variable region that binds 2 each Ab
    Fab region (Fab = Antigen Binding)
  19. First Ab to respond2infection w/ 10day time period
  20. Only Ab that can be formed by the Fetus is...
  21. IgM structure in circulation
    • Pentamer (M has 5 points)
    • Mom (M) responds2infection 1st
  22. what is the majority of Ab's?
  23. Dominant Ab (80-85%) in circulation w/ 21day time period
  24. Only Ab that can cross the placenta
  25. Ab of memory
  26. Ab found mostly in secretions (w/ 6day time period)
  27. Structure is a monomer in serum; & DIMER in secretions
  28. Ab this is the Maturation of antibody response
    IgD (D for mature domanent)
  29. Ab active in type 1 allergic reaction
    IgE (allerg-E)
  30. Ab barely detectable in circulation
  31. Cloning ofspecific antibodies
    Clonal Selection
  32. Specific response of mature B cells to an sntigens epitopes best describes....
    Clonal selection
  33. Repeated cycles of cell division generates population of copied antibodies best describes...
    Clonal Expansion
  34. Clonal expansion: Imature
    Simple B Cell
  35. Clonal expansion: Naive
    B cell contacts an antigen but is clueless
  36. Clonal expansion: Activated
    B cell encounters antigen & makes Fab arms
  37. Clonal expansion: Effector plasma cells or Memory
    Makes antibodies 2b released n2circulation or remebers atigen
  38. Prevents toxin from interacting w/ cell
  39. Antibody bonding to cellular structures to interfere w/ function
    Immobilization & prevention of Adherence
  40. Clumping of bacterial cell by specific antibody so bacteria R mo easily phagocytized
    Aggutination & Precipitation
  41. Coating of bacteria w/ antibody 2enhance phagocytosis
  42. Antibody bonding triggers classical pathway
    Complement Activation
  43. Multiple antibodies bind a cell which becomes target 4certain cells
    Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
  44. T or F in primary response of Ab-Ag binding there is a lag period of 10-12days
  45. In wut response does Activated B cell grow rapidly & diferentiate into increasing #'s of plasma cells as long as antigen is present
    Primary response
  46. What is the net result of primary response?
    Slow steady increase in antibody titer
  47. In Ab-Ag binding wut response has memory cells that often eliminate invaders b4 noticible harm is done?
    2ndary response
  48. T or F Affinity maturation is a form of natural selection that ouccurs amung proliferating B cells
  49. Affinity maturation does wut 2 Bcells?
    Makes them mo specific 2 antigen for higher quality response
  50. B cells R programd 2differentiate n2plasma cells that secrete IgM antib's, but the b cell switched 2cells that secrete IgG. This is called...
    Class switching
  51. T or F T cells never produce antibodies
  52. In cell mediated ammunity antigen must b presented BY WHO for T cell receptor?
    Antigen Presenting Cell
  53. T cell receptor has wut kind of binding site?
    Ag - Major Histocompatability
  54. MHC stands for...
    Major Histocompatibility Complex
  55. T or F Infection is definded as colonized organisms have parasitic relationship w/ host
  56. No noticable adverse effects
    Asymptomatic Infection
  57. disease causes characteristic signs & symptoms
    Symptomatic Infection
  58. Effects experienced by the patient that are subjective...
  59. Effects that can be observed through examination objectivly...
  60. Organism that causes disease in a otherwise healthy person...
  61. Microbes that cause diease when a body's defense is down...
  62. pathogens disease causeing ability...
  63. 4 characteristics of infectious disease
    • Infectious Dose
    • Course of infectious disease
    • Duration of symptoms (Illness)
    • Distribution of pathogen
  64. T or F Diseases w/ small infectious dose R easier 2spread than larger 1's
  65. # of organisms required to establish infection is wut of the 4 characteristics of infectious disease?
    1. Infectious Dose
  66. ID50
    # of organism required to infect 50% of the pop.
  67. Course of infectious disease includes...
    • Incubation period
    • Illness
    • Convalescence
  68. Course of infectious disease: Time between introduction of organism 2onset symptoms
    Incubation period
  69. Course of infectious disease: signs & symptooms of disease appear
  70. Course of infectious disease: Period of recuperation and recovery
  71. Duration of symtoms: symptoms have rapid onset and last a short time
  72. Duration of symtoms: Chronic
    Symptoms develop slowly & persist
  73. Duration of symtoms: Latent
    Infection never completly elimnated & may bcum reactive
  74. Distribution of pathogen: Infection limited to a small area
  75. Distribution of pathogen: Toxins circulating in blood
  76. Distribution of pathogen: Viruses circulating in blood
  77. Distribution of pathogen: Acute life-threatining illness caused by infectious agaent or its products circulating in blood
  78. In order 2 cause disease, pathogens must follow a series of steps that include...
    • Adherence - bind 2 host cell receptors
    • Colonization - bacteria bcum estasblishd & multiply
    • Deliver effector molecules - bacteria deliver molecules directly 2host & induce changes 2recieving cell
  79. Most common type of Acquired Immunity
    Naturally acquired active immunity (Natural + Active (energy))
  80. Least common type of Acquired Immunity
    Artificically acquired passive immunity (Artificial = lab made + passive = no energy)
  81. Ab through transplacental or via breast milk
    Natually Acquired Passive immunity
  82. Injection of Ag (vacination) 2 produce Ab
    Artificial acquired active immunity
  83. Which type of immunity is known as an anit serum?
    Artificially acquired passive
  84. Type of vaccine: Live, weakened form of pathogen
    Attenuated vaccine
  85. Type of vaccine: Unable 2replicate in vaccinated individule
    Inactivated vaccines
  86. Attenuated Vaccine Advantages
    • Induce long lasting immunity
    • Can spread 2 un immunized individuals
  87. Attenuated Vaccine Disadvantages
    Could cause disease n immunocompromised ppl
  88. T or F Polio, MMR, & yellow fever vaccines R examples of Attenuated vaccines
  89. Inactivated vaccines advantage
    Cannot cause disease, immunogenic not pathogenic
  90. Inactivated vaccines disadvantage
    • Magnitude of immune response is limited
    • Booster shots
  91. Disease transmitted from one host to another
    Communicable disease
  92. The suitable enviornment that a pathgogen must have to live is called...
    a reservoir
  93. T or F reservoir is the most important part of epidemiology
  94. Disease that does not spread from one host 2another
  95. Examples of Non communicable (not pasted from host 2 host)
    Tetenus, Flesh eating disease, plaque on teeth
  96. Wut causes a non communicable disease?
    • A individules own normal flora
    • Enviornmental reservoir
  97. Number of cases of illness divided by population at risk...
  98. Population that dies 4rm disease...
  99. Number of new cases per time period...
  100. total # of existing cases...
  101. Match these words Worldwide, Endemic, Region, Area, Pandemic, epidemic
    • Endemic - Area
    • epidemic - region
    • Pandemic - Worldwide
  102. Put the step of spreading a disease in order...
    • Reservoirs
    • Portal of Exit
    • Transmission
    • Portals of Entry
  103. This reservior is difficult & nearly immposible 2eliminate...
  104. T or F there can be non-human animal reservoirs
  105. Human Reservoirs can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Wut is the difference?
    • Symptomatic: Obvious source of infectious agents
    • Asymptomatic: Harbor pathogen w/no ill effects
  106. Which reservior is the worst?
    Asymptomatic humans
  107. What r portals of exit?
    A orifice or surface of the body that is used as a exit from one host 2another
  108. Modes of transmission
    Direct/Indirect contact, air, food, water, vectors
  109. In Horizontal transmission how is pathogen passed 4rm reservoir 2host?
    Via contact w/ food, water, or living agent
  110. In Vertical transmission how is pathogen passed 4rm reservoir 2host?
    During breast feeding (From mother 2offspring)
  111. T or F Colonization is a prequisite for causing disease
  112. Name some major portals of entry
    Eyes, Broken skin, Respiratory tract, Blood
  113. Three fators that influence epidemiology of disease
    • Dose (lower dose worse than higher)
    • Incubation Period (Longer period, greater spead)
    • Population (certain pops mo susceptible2diff. illness)
  114. Wut is herd immunity?
    If enuf ppl r vaccinated the whole population can b immune
  115. Wut r the 6 popula. charact. dat influence occurence of diease?
    • Immunity - General Health
    • Age - Gender
    • Religion - Genetics
  116. Epidemiologists investigate disease outbreak 2 determine...
    • Causative Agent
    • Reservoir
    • Route of Transmission
  117. Epidemiological Studies
    • Descriptive Studies
    • Analytical Studies
    • Corss Sectional Studies
    • Retrospective Studies
    • Prospective studies
  118. Descriptive epidemiology studies define wut characteristics?
    • Person: Profile of ill persons
    • Place: general contact sites, identifies poss. reservoirs
    • Time: Rapid rise suggests common source
  119. Wut do Analytical epidemiology studies determine?
    Which potential factors from descriptive studies r relevent
  120. Significance of cross-sectional epidemiology studies
    Survey range of ppl 2c the degree of the # of characteris.
  121. Describe Retrospective epidemiology Studies
    Done following outbreak, compare actions & evens surrounding outbreak
  122. Describe Prospective epidemiology Studies (Academia)
    Look ahead 2c if retrospective risk factors predict tendency 2develop disease (hypothesis)
  123. T or F experimental epidemiology Studies mostly used 2determine effectiveness of prevention/treatment & Double blinds r used 2avoid bias
  124. Wut r Nosocomial Infections?
    Hospital acquired infections
  125. Factors that determine which agent r responsible for nosocomial infections
    • Length of exposure
    • Manner of exposure
    • Virulence & # of organism
    • State of host defenses
  126. Types of Antimicrobial drugs
    • Antibiotics (synthesized/secreted by a tru organism)
    • Semisynthetics (chemically altered for new character.)
    • synthetics (lab made)
  127. Features of Antimicrobial drugs
    • Selective toxicity
    • Antimicrobial Action
    • Spectrum of Activity
    • Tissue distrib. / metabolism / excresion
  128. Features of Antimicrobial Drugs: Selective Toxicity
    Theraputic Index (High theraputic index = less toxic 2patient)
  129. Features of Antimicrobial Drugs: Antimicrobial Action
    • Bacteriostatic drugs INHIBIT bacterial growth
    • Bacteriocidal drugs KILL bacteris
  130. Features of Antimicrobial Drugs: Spectrum of Activity
    • Narrow: targets limited range of bacteria (gram + or - )
    • Broad: targets wide range of bacteria (gram + & - )
  131. Features of Antimicrobial Drugs: Tissue distrib. / metabolism / excresion
    Elimination expressed in halflife which dictates frequency of dosage
  132. Synergistic combination
    2 teatments work 2gether
  133. Antagonistic combination
    2treatments work against eachotha
  134. Additive combinations
    2treatments compliment eachother
  135. T or F Antimicrobial drugs that inhibit cell wall synthesis have very high threaputic index
  136. Wut does the inhibition of protien synthesis target?
    Prokaryotic Ribosome
  137. Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis targets wut?
    enzymes nessacary 4 DNA replication
  138. Interference wit cell membrane integrity causes wut?
    Chage in permiability which leads 2 leakage of cell components & cell death
Card Set
Microbiology Exam 2
Exam 2 micro flashcards University of Toledo