History 112b

  1. Fascism
    • A totalitarian political movement that developed
    • during the time in-between WWI and WWII

    • Comes from the fascio di combattimento
    • Referring to the groups of men organized by Mussolini

    • Comes from the word fasces
    • Bundle of sticks with an axe attached to it
    • Carried by the tribune

    The most important person that was not of the king

    • Picked the word fasces due to:
    • Trying to harken back to the roman empire

    • Mussolini the first fascist leader
    • Hitler the second

    • Response to the 20th century
    • Alternative to capitalism
  2. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    Russian Civil War

    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    • Russia gives up Baltic states, finland, etc
    • Did it to pull out of WW1 so he could get more power
    • Sets up the Russian Civil War


    • 1917-1923
    • Bolshevik against others for control of Russia
    • Bolshevik known as the Red Army
    • Most known guy was Leon Trotsky
    • Set up the Red Army
    • Set up the Cheka
    • Grandfather of the KGB

    • Fought against white armies (anti-revolutionaries)
    • Turkish, Poland, Finland, Japan, Britain (UK), America etc…ANYONE who didn’t want a revolution
    • WWI at a low key level

    • Russians wins though
    • War communism
    • Militarize production
    • Took food from their own peasants

    • Once war ends though, Lenin established the NEP
    • New Economic Program
    • Limited reopening of the private market
    • Allow peasants to have a capitalist system
    • Revives the economy
    • Lenin has a stroke
    • Troubles occur
    • STALIN emerges o Stalin means steel lol
    • “Five year plans” emerges rapidly industrialize
    • does it at the expense of the people again lol
  3. Zheng He
    • Admiral in the Ming dynasty
    • Sent naval ships all the way to Africa
    • easily could have taken over them all
    • Chinese chose not to
    • Military had low social status
    • Gov ends up shutting down the military
    • No need to expand or take anyone over
  4. Malintzin (Dona Maria)
    • Hernan Cortes/Jeronimo de Aguilar
    • Herman is exploring the coast of modern day mexico Receives a slave woman from the locals
    • Given malintzin
    • Shes from central mexico
    • Spoke nahua and mayan
    • Jeronimo integrated himself into myan society after becoming shipwrecked (spoke myan and spanish)
    • Jeronimo leaves with Hernan and Malintzin
    • Indegenous and Europeans say that Malintzin played a key role in the Spaniards success
  5. Go-Betweens
    • Alida Metcalf “Go-Betweens”
    • Creation of the Americas was not the result of a dozen men, but the interactions between common people…thousands and thousands of interactions shaped this place; interconnecting and influencing one another

    Role types:

    Physical Go-Betweens

    • Material Links
    • Linkages of material culture of these areas
    • Transfer of flaura and fauna
    • The Columbian Exchange
    • Things that were formally only in America, are not in Africa, Europe…vice versa
    • Livestock
    • BAD - Indigenous people were upset with the changing of the land due to sheep, cows, etc degrading it by trampling, grazing, etc
    • GOOD – horses, these people used to walk everywhere – chickens, to eat – corn, quickly adopted in areas that it never existed before → causes a population spike in china → allowed Africa to sustain itself during the slave trade; even though thousands were being taken out, the food surplus made it able to sustain its numbers
    • Disease
    • Virgin Soil Epidemics
    • Interactions between the Europeans, Africans, Asians, caused a sort of an inbred resistance to disease
    • This is not the case with the Americas o EX) Central Mexico
    • Population reduced by like…85%; due to warfare as well, but mostly disease
    • EX) Carabean
    • Completely loose indeginous population; easily taken over

    Transactional Go-Betweens

    • transactions between people
    • people who are able to negotiate the interactions between two peoples that would usually misunderstand each other
    • Examples
    • Malintzin (Dona Maria)

    Representational Go-Betweens

    • according to metcaf, this is the most powerful
    • writers, artists, that represent the situation
    • power is in how they created images that endures over time
    • the individual dies, but the artwork lives on
    • the audience is much larger as well
    • the people can learn about Americas without having to actually go to America
    • EX) Mexico o B. Las Casas o Fray Pedro de Gante
    • Priest
    • Defenders of indigenous rights
    • Wrote to king/queen
    • Wanted slavery outlawed
    • Created/advocate for them, but by doing so, they convey the unwritten message of how they are in need due to their incompetence to do it on there own
  6. Issac Newton
  7. Dinshawai
    • Page 44
    • Egyptians liked the piegons
    • Europeans come over and shoot the peigons, it pisses em off; especially when they accidently shoot a person; they also started a fire in some grain on the threshing grounds
    • Egyptians retaliate, kill some british people
    • Villagers are just “looking out for their families”
    • British are like, heck no
    • The british actually put the villagers on trial
    • Lord Cromer puts 54 people on trial
    • Many go to jail, hung, etc
    • Page 44
    • That statue belonged to one of the men that was eventually hung (Zahran)
    • British realize they were wrong
    • Pardon those who survived
    • Not enough for the Egyptians
  8. John Maynard Kaynes
    • Economics guy
    • Demand makes economy grow
    • Government stimulates the demand
  9. Porfirio Diaz
    Mexican President 1876-1910

    Elections every four years, but yeah, no one could beat this guy due to the oligarchic system

    • Believed in the idea of Progress
    • Looked in favor of US as a country to imulate
    • Thought that countries developed on a linear type of way
    • US, GB had art, music, power
    • Looked at these as the model
    • Put big value on their music, economics, politics
    • Was embarrassed about how “Indidan” mexico was
    • Tradition was an impediment to Progress
    • For mexico to become US, tradition had to go lol
    • Skeptical of the contributions that an indeginous person could make
    • they were inferior to the whites
    • since the indigenous are less than me, its ok for me to rule an oligarchic type of democracy
    • allowed foreigners to “transform” their culture and slowly copy them and transform ourselves
    • those not willing to change, we will just have to destroy them
  10. Toussaint L'Overture
    "the slave who defeated Napolean"

    • slave revolts in Saint Dominique, and Toussaint became the leader of the slave rebellion
    • He became known as Toussaint L'Ouverture (the one who finds an opening) and brilliantly led his rag-tag slave army. He successfully fought the French (who helped by succumbing to yellow fever in large numbers) as well as invading Spanish and British.

    • By 1803 Napoleon was ready to get Haiti off his back: he and Toussaint agreed to terms of peace. Napoleon agreed to recognize Haitian independence and Toussaint agreed to retire from public life.
    • A few months later, the French invited Toussaint to come to a negotiating meeting will full safe conduct.
    • When he arrived, the French (at Napoleon's orders) betrayed the safe conduct and arrested him, putting him on a ship headed for France.
    • Napoleon ordered that Toussaint be placed in a prison dungeon in the mountains, and murdered by means of cold, starvation, and neglect.
    • Toussaint died in prison, but others carried on the fight for freedom.

    • Six months later, Napoleon decided to give up his possessions in the New World.
    • He was busy in Europe and these far-away possessions were more trouble than they were worth.
    • He abandoned Haiti to independence and sold the French territory in North America to the United States (the Louisiana purchase).
  11. Estates General
    Sort of like the Congress of the French

    • called into session by Louis the 16th
    • big deal, they hadnt been called in for over 150 years
    • after, France broke away from their old system of absolute monarchy
    • over the next 25 years, you get the French Revolution
  12. Fort Hare
    University established in 1916

    by WWI, you have a siginficant number of people who know western technology and western law
  13. Zheng He
    • Admiral in the Ming dynasty
    • Sent naval ships all the way to Africa
    • easily could have taken over them all
    • Chinese chose not to
    • Military had low social status
    • Gov ends up shutting down the military
    • No need to expand or take anyone over
  14. Pan Africanism
    unity for all Africa

    appealed to Africans as a response to colonial racism

    an anti-slavery and anti-colonial movement amongst black people of Africa and the Diaspora in the late nineteenth century
  15. African Diaspora
    • Africans living in a place that is not in Africa lol
    • Voluntary migration
    • During and after slavery
    • Composed of mostly those whose ancestors were slaves
    • By 1900, a significant portion migrated to England
    • Start seeing the concept of Blackness
  16. Nnamdi Azikwe
    • one of the leading figures of modern Nigerian nationalism
    • became the first President of Nigeria after Nigeria secured its independence from the United Kingdom on 1 October 1960
    • Founded the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons
  17. Atlantic World


    • Asia
    • Africa
    • America
    • Europe
  18. Third Estate


    • The "First Estate" was the Church (clergy = those who prayed)
    • The "Second Estate" was the Nobility (those who fought = knights). It was common for aristocrats to enter the Church and thus shift from the second to the first estate
    • The "Third Estate" was the Peasantry (everyone else, at least under feudalism: those who produced the food which supported those who prayed and those who fought, the members of the First and Second Estates)
    • Note that the categories defined by these traditional "estates" are gender specific: they are defined by what a man does for a living as much as by the social class into which he was born.
  19. Henry the Navigator
    • The son of Joao the frirst
    • Prince Henery
    • Patron; bankrolled the attempts to systemize private knowledge of the ways to sail
    • Sailors like to hide their knowledge; they don’t like to fish next to each other or share their secrets; that creates competition

    Henry made this knowledge transferable to all for everyone to use collectively (important)
  20. Caravel
    a small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean

    • 60-100 feet in length
    • good for coastal exploration
    • outfitted with innovations
    • stern rudders
    • lateen sail
    • long triangular sails
    • astrolabe - early atronomical unit
    • developed to judge latitude
  21. Saenz Pena Law
    • 1912
    • law change after Porfiro Diaz got kicked out
    • no property restrictions
    • no literacy requirements
    • eligible to vote
  22. Smoot-Howley Tariff
    • tariff on goods coming into a country
    • undermined the confidence of the stock market
    • caused international trade to go down 62%
    • caused world industrial producation to do down 36%
  23. Mestizo Identity
    • meaning blending of cultures
    • the time after Porfirio Diaz got kicked out
    • government starts embracing Indian culture
    • their proud of it now

    STARK contrast from how it was prior to the revolution
  24. Marcus Garvey
    • Influenced by Booker T Washington
    • Founded the UNIA
    • Universal Negro Improvement Association
    • Mass movement to move back to Africa and establish a black state
    • Several million members at its height
    • Never got to Africa
    • His newspapers did though
    • Scared the Europeans
    • Thought of as terrorist papers
    • Friction between him and the black elites
    • W.E.B. DaBois
    • Convicted of fraud, sent to jail in Atlanta, then deported
    • Prior to jail, Garvey said a king would come out of Africa, and that king was the emperor of Ethiopia, Ras Tafari
    • This is were the movement of Rhagae comes from lol
  25. Berlin Conference
    • 1884
    • the start of the cutting up of africa
  26. Pan African Conference
    • Organized by a Caribbean lawyer
    • Henry Sylvester Williams
    • Organized to stop the exploitation of Africa and Africans
    • After WWI, DaBois comes into the picture
    • Wanted to make another PAC in 1919
    • Stalled by the racist Woodrow Wilson
    • Finally started another in 1921
  27. ESSAY

    Describe the 19th century foundations (imperialism, industrialization, nationalism) of WWI

    Make sure to describe at least two significant, long term socio-political consequences of the conflict

    • ???
    • Nationalism

    • Abroad Europe, the desire to obtain colonies placed European countries to have rivalries over who would get to colonize who
    • Berlin Conference 1884
    • The Scramble for Africa 1850
    • Also, had competition inside Europeo The map of change is occurring rapidly due to little countries seeing Germany and Italy becoming their own country
    • Little countries realize they need to become allies with large powerful countries so they don’t get taken over by their bigger neighbors
    • Belgium looks to GB
    • Serbia looks to Russia

    • Two things come out of this:
    • Emerging nations
    • Ottoman Empire breaking up and new nations emerge
    • Austro-Hungry
    • Worried about nationalism due to the abundance of nationalities in their “plot of land”
    • What if all of these ethnic minorities want to become separate nations?
    • Or not…

    • Serbian Nationalism
    • Right next to Serbia is an ethnic group of Serbians inside the Ottoman Empire
    • Not likely to happen; Ottoman Empire wont let em go
    • So they get violent


    • exploits petroleum (60s)
    • big for making lighto kerosene lamps
    • internal combustion Engine (80s)
    • demand for oil, rubber become important


    • Europe
    • Treaty of Versailles and Financial ruin
    • Germany forced to pay back, last payment September 2010
    • Europe is broke, frustrated, and looking for a leader...
    • End of European self confidence
    • Revealed they were not the epitome of civilization

    • Hitler emerges
    • good soldier
    • war ends, but he keeps his connections
    • first job after war was to infiltrate teh NAZI party
    • communist feel as though they can use the NAZI party
    • comes to power by election, not violence
    • president calls on hitler to make a government
    • president dies
    • hitler makes the Night of Long Knives
    • uses it to kill off those who opposed him

    • Economy
    • actually gets better
    • autobahn built
    • people really started liking what he was doing
    • 1945, Nuremberg Laws enacted
    • discrimination against the jews
    • average german didnt care; anti-semitism already existed

    • attacks the treaty of versailles
    • people really start noticing him
    • they hated it too
    • hitler pulls them out of the league of nations
    • reinstitutes the Air Force
    • Reinstitutes the army

    • Italy
    • Won, but felt as though they got screwed in the treaty of Versailles
    • Mussolini takes this, and uses it to take over in Italy
    • Wanted the war
    • Thought it could help Italy become more powerful
    • Pretty poor nation
    • Just became independent; saw this as an opportunity
    • Worked; now he is urged to keep this power
    • Fascist party picks up steam
    • Black shirts in the streets “duking it out” with the Marxists
    • Ex military, small business men, are attracted to this
    • Fascist see themselves as nationalists
    • They love their country, and want the best for it
    • They tend to be traditional, tend to like traditional values

    • 1932, Mussolinni brought into power
    • mobalize the black shirts
    • establishes a coup, stats a dictatorship
    • invades ethipoia
  28. Describe the short term events and long term structural changes that led to the development of:

    Russia, Germany, Italy

    Argentina and Brazil

    Argentina and Brazil


    • Rural Oligarchy
    • Closely tied to raw material exports
    • Government efforts was focused on amplifying the returns of the exporting elite
    • Unlike mexico, they do not have a violent revolution
    • What brings them down is the Great Depression

    • Great Depression
    • Their economy was built on trade
    • Free trade
    • Comparative advantage
    • Nations should concentrate on things they are good at, and trade for other things
    • Worked; until the GD
    • Very little industry
    • International Trade collapses in 1929 (GD)
    • Smoot Hawley Tariff by the USA
    • Protect industry in the USA
    • Puts high tarrifs on imports into the USA
    • Other countries do the same
    • World trade is hampered
    • Unemployment leads to consumption changes
    • Less want for coffee
    • Go down to Populism at the bottom of the page



    • Coffee
    • 1920s – 60%
    • Helped by U.S. to build economy
    • Argentina

    • Beef/Wheat
    • Helped by Great Britain to build economy


    • Oriented toward Europe
    • Wanted kids to mock Europe
    • Skeptical of their own type
    • Not productive
    • Dismissive of trends within their own country
    • Want to reshape their country in European culture

    Longer trends since 1890 that led to Populism other than the GD

    • Immigration
    • 1824-1924 52 million
    • 70% came to USA from Europe
    • 20% go to Latin America
    • Brazil/Argentina receive the lion share
    • Going cause they have an economic boom at the time (remember, before the GD, they were doing very well for themselves)
    • By 1890, they are no longer immigrants, but citizens (kids)
    • Floods rural population
    • Fuels urban growth

    • Urban Growth
    • Economy is driven by the rural area
    • There are cities though
    • Rio and Buenos Aries
    • Growing rapidly due to the dynamism of the rural area
    • Working class grows
    • Growing urban group feels disconnected to politics though
    • Industry


    • Gov policy towards industry didn’t change even though more industry was coming about
    • Industrialists felt unrepresented/discriminated against
    • Start going to their gov; gov said no extra help
    • Size of the working class grows also


    • Interested in working conditions, minimum wage, working hours, pensions, etc
    • Rebuffed by the gov as well
    • Described as the “SOCIAL QUESTION”
    • President at the time said it was a problem for the police and not the government


    • Many requirements
    • Very few people were eligible to vote
    • Literacy, citizenship
    • 1920s
    • immigrants become naturalized or kids are citizens
    • elegible to vote
    • legal changes
    • SAENZ PENA law 1912
    • No property restiriction
    • No literacy requirements Brazil, 1932
    • Women/workers both get the vote

    Many different trends lead to Populism other than the GD

    • Politicians realize the change and change themselves to the status quo
    • Become Populists (get it, Popular, Populists)


    • New Generation of Politicians
    • Geutilo Vargas
    • Juan Peron
    • Eva Peron (his wife)

    • Highly charismatic
    • Recognize the change
    • Recognize that change means the working class has power now
    • The oligarchs have ignored the middle class for too long
    • If we get the middle class, we will be unstoppable
    • Numerically, they outnumber the elite big time1930-1960s

    • Nationalistic
    • Resent the foreign dominance along with the people
    • Start having carnival celebrations
    • Did this before, but was put down by the gov
    • Now, its celebrated as nationalistic
    • Buy the railroads from the British
    • Disaster financialy, but nationalisticly, they were now not owned by a foreign power; “its ours”
    • New economic ideas
    • Industry
    • No longer just an agriculture economy
    • Embark on industrialization
    • Not new, but the role of the gov is whats new
    • Moving from making tshirts to making cars
    • Gov very involved now
    • If entrepreneur cant provide it, the gov does
    • Social Justice
    • Use mass media and modern transportation to spread their message
    • Gov takes a role in protection
    • Worker protection, worker rights, pensions, union expansion, minimum wage
    • DUDE, the elites won with like 89% before
    • Now, with the competition and campaigning they
    • Spoke publically
    • Spoke like a friend and not a dictator
    • Tu and usted lol
  29. Our textbook noted that WWI shattered European self-confidence. Yet, in many ways, the period between 1910 and 1940 offered the peoples of Africa, Latin America and Asia an opportunity to re-imagine their place in the world in much more positive terms.
    Drawing examples from at least two regions, discuss the dynamics that allowed for this reappraisal.

    • WW1 helped Japan retain power in Asia and its territorial holdings in the Pacific.
    • “The postwar era" brought Japan unprecedented prosperity.
    • Japan went to the peace conference at napaj in 1919 as one of the great military and industrial powers of the world and received official recognition as one of the "Big Five" of the new international order.
    • It joined the League of Nations and received a mandate over Pacific islands north of the Equator formerly held by Germany
    • The postwar period was a rising era for Japan.
    • As a result of assisting in the war, Great Britain repaid Japan with several German Islands.
    • After establishing itself as one of the greatest military power in the world, Japan now wanted to institute Imperialism.
    • It conquered Manchuria and launched a war with China.
    • The desire to conquer more, lead Japan to a war with Soviet Union in which Japan was defeated.
    • The war officially ended on June 28th, 1919 with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles.
    • Although Japan played a small role, it had a huge advantage from this war.
    • This war enabled Japan to emerge as a great power in international politics.
    • World War I had many impacts on Japan, such as the trading rules and regulations.
    • Many valuable items such as raw silk, tea, rice, textiles, machines, light and modern goods were exported and imported to and from Japan and Europe, particularly Great Britain.


    • Africa, one nation that was very war torn, did benefit in small ways from the war in terms of relationships with other countries.
    • “World War I gave rise to a crucial change in the relationship between Africa and Europe.”

    Latin America

    • Some immediate effects though from WWI would be the industrialization of Latin America.
    • Much of Latin America began to industrialize.
    • Foreign investments were encouraged and policies were changed to help promote investments as well.
    • The U.S. especially began to take part and expand in investments.
    • Being cut off from supplies of imports, they had to resort to producing these former imports themselves.
    • Therefore, they experienced what some call import substitution industrialization.
    • This was mostly light industry, such as textiles.
    • Lack of capital, markets, and low technological advancements continued to plague them.
    • WWI stimulated the economy at first, creating a high European demand for goods.
Card Set
History 112b