1. Congenital heart defects
    1. Structural abnormalities caused by failure of the heart to develop normally before birth.

    2. Some congenital defects are apart at birth, others may not be detected until later in life.
  2. Coronary Artery Disease
    1. Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries.

    2. Reduces blood supply to the heart muscle

    • 3. Creates insufficient supply of oxygen that can cause:
    • .....a. angina (pain)
    • .....b. mycardial infarction (heart attack)
    • .....c. death

    • 4. End stage coronary atery disease characterized by:
    • .....a. Unrelenting angina pain
    • .....b. Severely limited lifestyle
  3. Atherosclerosis
    Hardening and narrowing of the arteries caused by buildup of cholesterol plaque on the interior walls of the artieries.
  4. Plaque
    1. Fatty deposit similar to buildup of rust within pipe.

    2. Plaque can protrude outward into the lumen of the vessel or can protrude inward into the wall of the vessel.

    3. Atherosclerotic plaque found within lumen of arteries
  5. Lumen
    Opening within artery through which blood flows.

    • Medical Desk Dictionary:
    • .....1. Cavity of a tubular organ (the ~ of a blood vessel)
    • .....2. The bore of a tube (as of a hollow needle or catheter)
  6. Atheroma
    1. A characteristic of atherosclerosis

    2. Deposit of plaque on or within the arterial wall
  7. Ischemic heart disease
    1. A group of cardiac disabilities resulting from an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart.

    2. Uusually associated with coronary artery disease.
  8. Ischemia
    Condition in which there is an insufficient oxygen supply due to to a restricted blood flow to a part of the body.

    Example: cardiac insufficiency means lack of blood flow & oxygen to heart muscle.
  9. Angina
    1. Also known as angina pectoralis.

    2. Condition of episodes of severe chest pain due to inadequate blood flow to the myocardium.

    3. Due to ischemia of the heart muscle.
  10. Myocardial infarction
    1. Also known as heart attack.

    2. Occlusion of one or more coronary arteries caused by plaque buildup. Note: As used in this chapter means total blockage.

    3. Damage to myocardium impairs heart's ability to pump blood throughout the body.

    • 4. Most frequently recognized symptoms of a myocardial infarction include:
    • .....a. Pain in the middle of the chest that may spread to the back, jaw, or left arm.
    • .....b. Many individuals having a heart attack have mild symptoms or none at all.
  11. Infarction
    1. Means sudden insufficiency of blood.

    2. An infarct is a localized area of dead tissue caused by a lack of blood.
  12. Heart failure
    1. Also referred to as congestive heart failure

    2. Occurs most commonly in the elderly

    3. Chronic condition in which heart is unable to pump out all of the blood it receives.

    4. Decreased pump action causes congestion.

    • 5. Can be left-sided or right-sided:
    • .....a. Left-sided heart failure:
    • ...........(1) Also known as pulmonary edema
    • ...........(2) Causes accumulation of fluid in lungs
    • ...........(3) Left side of heart is not pumping efficiently
    • .....b. Right-sided heart failure:
    • ...........(1) Causes fluid buildup beginning in feet and legs
    • ...........(2) Can also affect:
    • ...................(a) Liver
    • ...................(b) Gastrointestinal tract
    • ...................(c) Arms
    • ...........(3) Occurs because right side of heart is not efficiently pumping blood to and from rest of body OTHER THAN LUNGS.
  13. Pulmmonary edema
    Left-sided heart failure
  14. Cardiolmegaly
    1. Abnormal enlargement of heart

    2. Frequently associated with heart failure

    3. Heart enlarges in effort to compensate for the loss of its pumping ability
  15. Carditis
    Inflammation of the heart

    Note Spelling: Uses card/o combining form to avoid having a double 'i' when it is joined with the suffix '-itis.'
  16. Endocarditis
    Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
  17. Bacterial endocarditis
    1. Inflammation of the lining or valves of the heart caused by the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream.

    2. One cause of this condition is bleeding during dental surgery because it allows bacteria from the mouth to enter the bloodstream.
  18. Myocarditis
    1. Inflammation of the myocardium

    2. Uncommon condition can develop as a complication of a viral infection.
  19. Pericarditis
    1. Inflammation of the pericardium

    2. Causes an accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac.

    3. Fluid restricts the beating of the heart aand reduces the ability of the heart to pump blood throughout the body
  20. Cardiomyopathy
    Term used to describe all diseases of the heart muscle.
  21. Dilated cardiomyopathy
    • 1. Disease of the heart muscle that causes the heart to
    • .....a. Become enlarged
    • .....b. Pump less strongly

    2. Progression of this condition is usually slow and only presents symptoms when quite advanced.
  22. Dilate, dilation
    Means the expansion, enlargement, or stretching of a hollow structure.
  23. Heart murmur
    1. Abnormal sound heard when listening to the heart or neighboring large blood vessels.

    2. Are most often caused by defective heart valves.
  24. Valvulitis
    Inflammation of a heart valve
  25. Valvular prolapse
    1. Abnormal protrusion of a heart valve that results in the inability of the valve to close completely.

    • 2. Named for affected valve, such as mitral valve prolapse
  26. Prolapse
    Means falling or dropping down of an organ or internal part.
  27. Valvular stenosis
    1. Condition in which there is narrowing, stiffening, thickening, or blockage of one or more heart valves.

    2. Conditions named after affected valve, such as aortic valve stenosis.
  28. Cardiac arrest
    1. Event in which the heart abruptly stops or develops a very abnormal arrhythmia that prevents it from pumping blood.

    2. Sudden cardiac death results if treatment is not provided within a few minutes.
  29. Sudden cardiac death
    1. Death ocurring within minutes or hours following onset of acute symptoms of cardiac arrest.

    2. Results, especially, from arrhythmias
  30. Arrhythmia
    Describes an abnormality or loss of the normal rhythm of the heartbeat.
  31. Bradycardia
    1. Abnormally slow resting heart rate.

    2. Usually applied to rates less than 60 beats per minute (BPM).
  32. Tachycardia
    1. Abnormally rapid resting heart rate.

    2. Usually applied to rates greater than 100 beats per minute.
  33. Palpitation
    1. Pounding, racing heart with or without irregularity in rhythm.

    2. Associated with certain heart disorders; however, can also occur as part of a panic attack.
  34. Atrial fibrillation
    1. Also known as A fib.

    2. Occurs when the normal rhythmic contrctions of the atria are replaced by rapid irregular twitching of the muscular heart wall.
  35. Fibrillation
    Means a fast, uncontrolled heart beat.
  36. Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia
    1. Also known as PAT.

    2. An episode that begins and ends abruptly during which there are very rapid and regular heartbeats that originate in the atrium.

    3. Caused by an abnormality in the body's electrical system.
  37. Paroxysmal
    Means pertaining to sudden ocurrence.
  38. Ventricular fibrillation
    1. Also known as V fib.

    2. Rapid, irregular, and useless contractions of the ventricles.

    3. Instead of pumping strongly, the heart muscle quivers ineffectively.

    4. This condition is the cause of many sudden cardiac deaths.
  39. Compare PAT & V fib
    • 1. Heartbeat:
    • .....a. PAT: Very rapid & regular
    • .....b. V fib: Rapid, irregular, useless contractions
    • 2. Origin
    • .....a. PAT: Originates in the atrium
    • .....b. V fib: Originates in the ventricles.

    • 3. Other:
    • .....a. PAT: Begins & ends suddenly
    • .....b. V fib: Causes of many sudden cardiac deaths.
  40. Ventricular tachycardia
    1. Also known as V tach.

    2. Very rapid heart beat that begins with the ventricles.

    3. Condition is potentially fatal because the heart is beating so rapidly that it is unable to adequately pump blood through the body.

    4. Condition can be controlled for some patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.
  41. Compare PAT and V tach
    • 1. Heart beat:
    • .....PAT: Rapid, irregular and useless quivering contractions
    • .....V tach: So rapid cannot pump blood effectively

    2. Origin: Both originate in the ventricles

    3. V tach can sometimes be controlled by cardioverter implant.
Card Set
Ch 5 Medical Terminology Cardiovascular Part 3 - Pathology of Heart & Blood Vessels