When do plants close their stomata?
When their stressed
Random movement of molecules from one concentration to another
Diffusion Depends on:
- Physical state
What elements can diffuse through a selectively permeable membrane?
What elements cannot diffuse through a selectively permeable membrane?
Whats the best tonic situation for the cell?
What happens if the cell is in a hypertonic environment?
- redution of H2O in cell
- membrane not puching on CW
- no H2O flow
Energy determines where its going to go
Ability of H2O to move out of cells
Osmotic potential = turgor pressure
What a fundamental Principle regarding water flow?
Water will flow from higher potential to lower potential
List the 4 roles of osmosis:
- 1. Stomata opening
- 2. H2O uptake by roots
- 3. Xylem transport
- 4. Phloem transport
Balance of CO2 uptake and H2O release by the stomata
What radially orientated to prevent swelling?
What happens if there an increase in turgor pressure?
Adding salt to soil makes the water pressure...
lots of H2O uptake through roots
continously pushes H2O up through xylem
water pushed out through hydathodes
Vessles on epidermis that open
What makes H2O very cohesive?
Human value of leaves
Chemicals in leaves for medicinal use
Main function of a leaf
No lateral meristems will generate leaves
Primary in orgin
1 leaf per node
2 leaves per node
3 or more leaves per node
What creates the optimal pattern?
Circle in circle
Why do veins tend to loop back around on themselves?
- Resilence to damage
- flucuations in demand
- more efficient delivery system
H2O can leave the stomata and go where?
What is it called when veins loop back on each other?
When turgor goes down and guard cells close
What are the only epidermal cells that have chloroplast?
parachyma cells around veins are called:
Xyloem w/vessel members
phloem w/sieve & companions
dicots-branching out patterns
preprogrammed to fall off
* thick cuticle layer
* stomatal crypt-chamber
*thicken on the bottom
* no stomata on bottom
* lots of air space
* veins very small
* not much cuticle
Why do leaves turn color in fall?
Chlorophyll production stops
under pressure because sugar is made at leaf
under tension because its being pulled up
a cell, made and stored sugars
a cell, wherever plants need sugar: roots, stems, reproductive parts
sugar from plasmodesmada to companion cell then transfers to sieve
symplastic loading method
space between cells, has to cross membrane with protein transport which uses energy via membrane pump
Apoplastic loading method
synthesis, builds things
Breaking down, digestion, respiration
taking small broken down things to make energy
* generated other molecules to build other things
*used both in catabolism and anabolism
* kills off "bad" microbes
* yeast turns wine into alcohol
Breaks trisaccharides down because we can't
What doesn't our bodies break down?
*made out of cells, only living things can make
* biological catalysis
* speeks up w/o being consumed
non-protein part of enzyme
apoenzyme + cofactor=
*ends with -ase
* named for substrate-what they work on
pocket created that substrate fits in by induced fit system
latch onto each other
most abundent enzyme in the world with 8 active sites
enzymes lower this
enzyme loses correct shape bonds break
-unfolds & sticks together
helps cells that get too hot
3 things that enzymes are affected by:
- 1. Temperature
- 2. pH
- 3. Heavey metals
common enzyme shutdown
What does allosteric inhibition depend on?
What happens when an inhibitor binds to the allosteric site?
changes the active site so substrate cannot fit
What determines if product is anabolic or catabolic?
takes a net amount of energy to happen
releases a net amount of energy to happen
change in motion or matter
The further the e- get from the nucleus the _________ the potential energy
saves exergonic energy
What is ATP made from?
What removes phosphate groups to release energy?
* loss of electrons
* releases energy
* gain of electrons
* source of covalent bonds
* required net energy
* produces ATP
must be coupled
cannot happen individually
How pea seeds make CO2?
germination via respiration
The tow chemicals life needs most
C6H12O6 + 02
98% of these organism carry out photosynthese
What else carries out photosynthesis besides plants
The two main parts of autotrophs
- light dependent actions
- sugar-building reactions
pigments in clusters
chlorophyll A molecules surrounded by 100's of pigments
P700 is favorite wavelength
mainly A and cartenoids
reaction center is 680
favors A, B chlorophyll and b carotene
the only chlorophyll that e- can be grabbed from
Non-cyclic electron flow-one way path
electron transport chain
creates flexible system for photsystem 1
cyclic electron flow
starting material for cavin cycle
Enzyme involved in calvin cycle
How many substrates and active sites does Rubisco have?
- 2 substrates - oxygen
- 8 active sites
glucose making cycle
energy for calvin cycle
Photosystem I and II
Where energy is stored from photolysis
electron transport chain
What are the Rubisco substrates?
compounds capable of absorbing light
What is the color we on plants?
the color their reflecting/not absorbing
What colors does chlorophyll absorb?
red and blue
What colors does carotenoids absorb?
What is the physical form of light energy?
When chlorophyll returns e- to lower orbital what is emitted?
What does CO2 and barium hydroxide form?
Barium Carbonate Ba(CO3)
What is the Kreb's Cycle?
What is the calvin Cycle?
What is everything in the Krebs Cycle multiplied by?
What are the plants that do photosynthesis?
What are the disadvantages of photosynthesis?
- * lowers CO2 and O2
- * Stoma loses H2O
What is a less dired Rubisco activater?
- -it competes for rubisco's active sites that are intended for CO2
What is bad for C4 plants in regards to photosynthesis?
- -rxns consume O2 and release CO2 in light
What the bad pathway for rubisco?
RuBP + O2 ->1 PGA + 2C
Creates only 1 PGA instead of 2
How does the C4 plants compensate for lack of CO2?
by taking 2C's (phosphoglycolates) X 2 and makes PGA & CO2
Whats the best way C4 plants compensate for lack of CO2?
using PEPC to grab the CO2 and transfer them to the Rubisco active site in Kelvin Cycle
What does the C4 plants have that are bigger than other plants?
hugh bundle sheath cells
Some examples of C4 plants:
- crab grass
Some examples of C3 plants:
used to make glass
high in sodium
maybe used for biofuel
C3 vs. C4
- * C3
- -Photosynthesis:lower light & lower temperatures
- -higher temps & not dependent on temperatures
-Comes from crassula plants
-ex Jada, pineapple
Crassulacean Acid Metabolism
What does CAM stand for?
Crassulacean Acid Metabolism
How does CAM photosynthesis happen?
- @ night-PEPC grabs CO2
- @ day- regular Calvin Cycle
signal & sensing pigments:
plants grown in dark
a pigment that plants use to detect light
What are the 4 types of phytochrome?
A, B, C, D
3 photoreceptor pigments:
- 1. phytochrome
- 2 phototrophins
- 3. crytochromes
plants response to changes in light periods
-seasonal in nature
What are the 4 catagories for photoperiodism?
- 1. short-day plants
- 2. long-day plants
- 3. intermediate-day plants
- 4. day-length neutral
below critical photoperiod
above critical photoperiod
-spinach, lettuce, wheat, potatoes
2 critical photoperiods
does not depend on the photoperiod
-tomatoes, roses, sunflowers
Growth toward or away in response to an external stimulus
external stimulus that affects tropism
Growth towards a external stimulus
growth away from an external stimulus
3 types of tropism
- 1. phototropism
- 2. gravitropism
- 3. thigmotropism
growth towards a light
reason plant top goes up
What is the name of the starch granules that sense gravity in the root cap?
What is the chemical that gets distributed according to gravity and causes cells to elongate?
direction is straight until it comes in contact with something else, then winds around
Grows towards H2O
Grows towards certain chemicals
The 2 biggest reasons the root is pulled towards gravity
statoliths and the auxin chemical inside it
4 Turgor movements
- 1. sleep movement
- 2. contact movements
- 3. water conservation plants
- 4. solar tracking
What is turgor movements?
The orientation of leaves responding to water pressure that rapidly changes and is reversible
folds up at night
leaves will fold up in response to stimulus (touch, heat, wind) at the base of the petiole called pulvinus
what is the base of the petiole called?
What is pulvinus's description?
fleshy part of petiole with parenchyma cells
water conservation plants
Another name for solar tracking
plants follow the angle of the sun
What part of the flower will also fold up in response to stimuli?
plant growth substances
where are the specific membrane receptor sites for hormones?
What chemical is involved in turning on genes and begining the building process?
name 5 hormones
- 1. Auxin
- 2. cytokinins
- 3. Gibberellins
- 4. Ethylene
- 5. abscisic Acid
*increases cell size
* Went's Experiment
*makes cell walls stretchy
*made in apical meristems
What hormone is involved in cutting off the tip of the plant to make the branches and leaves grow more?
Auxin bc its located there and will slow the plant from growing upwards
What does IAA & Lanolin mimic?
faster growing roots
What developes seedless fruits?
If theres a higher amount of auxin on one side of the plant what happens?
the plant will grow crooked bc auxin causes cells to elongate
* promotes cell division
* works with auxin to delay senescence
* adenine similiarities
* coconut milk
What is used in the floral industry to delay flowers from going into senecence?
* elongates internodes
* burst of this acid causes "bolting" stem used to pollenate
* helps grapes enlarge and thicken stem and space them out
* makes malting process faster by stimulating all possible amylase
What is the disease that affects gibberellins?
- Bakanae disease- fungus
- causes the hormone to rise to quickly
* rots food
* stress hormone
* causes epinasty
bending of the plant part is downwards due to increased growth on the upper side of an organ.
* inhibitory hormone
* closes stomata by inhibiting K+ pumps
* stops seed germentation
* counter acts other hormones
breaking down of glucose
The cellular respiration stage that uses 2 ATP's right away
anaerobic glycolysis produces what?
Products produced in glycolysis
- 2 ATP Makes 4 but use 2
- 2 NADP
- 2 pyruvate (3C)
Materials needed to start glycolysis
- 1 glucose (6C)
- 2 NAD+
- 2 ATP
- 4 ADP
- 2 phosphate groups
Whats used in the electron transport chain?
How many ATP's does the NADH in Electron Transport Chain make?
1 NADH ->3 ATPs
so 30 ATP total
How many ATPs does the FADH2 make in the electron transport chain?
1 FADH2 -> 2 ATPs
so 4 ATPs total
2e- + H(+) + 1/2 O2 -> H2O
Is it more acidic(H+) or basic(H-) in the matrix of the mitrochondria?
Protein going through mitrochondria that is complex and spins when H+ goes though
What happens when the ATP synthase inner axil turns?
Squeezes ADP and phosphate groups together in the housing in the matrix
Cellular Respiration order:
- Krebs System
- Electron Trainsport Chain
Basic idea of Electron Transport Chain
- Electrons is coming from NADH
- going to the NAD+
- Keep going down in energy
- the lost energy is being used to pump H+ protons into the outer compartment of the mitrochondria
- Those H+ want to get back into the matrix of the mitrochondria and do so by going through the ATP synthesis creating a ton of ATP
carbohydrates in glycolysis are produced into:
Pyruvic acid goes:
Where does glycolysis take place?
What is psi?
Newton force/Megapascal/water potential
Plants naturally solution to plasmolysis
- osmotic adjustment
- the adapted ability to increase cytoplasm concentration
What structure of the plant is determinent growth
Why do plants have spiral pattern leaves?
to maximize light capture
What can stipules become if hardened?
what type of cell provides support along the midrib of the leaf, where greater amount of vascular tissue is present
the enzyme that is a highly reactive substance that forms and then reacts further during the conversion of reactants to products
List the colors of the spectrum from low to high
What is the spectrum number for red?
What is the spectrum number for blue
consists of accessory pigment molecules, which collect light energy and pass it to the 2nd component
Why is it called Noncyclic Electron Flow?
bc the flow of electrons is in one direction
Why is it called the Cyclic Electron Flow?
No water is split and no oxygen released
What is the benefit of Cyclic Electron Flow?
provides additional ATP to drive the carbon-fixation rxns in photosynthesis
Where are the protons pumped into from the electron transport chain?
How many turns of the Calvin Cycle is needed to emerge one PGAL?
5 processes of respiration
- 1. glycolysis
- 2. acetyl coenzyme A formation
- 3. the Krebs cycle
- 4. electron transport chain
- 5. chemiosmosis and oxidative phosphorylation
Where does glycolysis occur?
Where does the formation of acetyl coenzyme A and Krebs cycle occur?
matrix of the mitochondria
Where does the electron transport chain and oxicative phosphorylation occur?
Membranes of the cristae
Oxygen is the final electron acceptor in the chain and energy is captured in a phosphorylation when a phosphate group is added to ADP to form ATP
Why its called Oxidative Phosphorylation
The flow of protons
Growth Responses are called:
highlights of light reactions:
- * thlakoid lumen
- * photolysis
- * electrons, protons, oxygen
- * P680
- * ATP & NADPH -> Calvin cycle
Highlights of Calvin Cycle:
- * Stroma of chloroplast
- * 5 carbon sugar: RuBP
- * Rubisco
- * PGA/3C
- * Reduction: ATP & NADPH
- * PGA -> PGAL
- * PGAL -> RuBP
- * X6
Highlights of Glycolysis:
- * Cytoplasm
- * 3 carbon sugars: pyruvic acid
- * 2 ATP
- * 2 NADH
- * 2 Pryuvates
Highlights of Acetyl CoA formation:
- * Pyruvate gives off CO2
- * Oxidization
- * NADH X2
Highlights of Krebs Cycle:
- * mitrochondria Matrix
- * Pyruvate -> OAA
- * Citric acid
- * CO2: 2
- * ATP: 2
- * FADH: 2
- * NADH: 6
- * multiply everything by 2
- * Citric acid + H20=malate
Highlights of Electron Transport Chain:
- * cristae membranes
- * Cytochromes
- * 10 NADH
- * 2 FADH
- * Reduction
- * Oxygen + H+ = H2O
- * Acidic intermembrane
Highlights of Chemiosmosis and oxidative Phosphorylation:
- * Intermembrane of Mitrochondria
- * ATP Synthase
Where else is ATP produced other than the ATP Synthase?
Krebs and glycolysis
What system produces CO2?
What system uses CO2?