Path MT, Endo I

  1. what is autonomous hypersecretion of hormone due to tumor or hyperplasia of the gland?
    primary endocrine hyperfunction
  2. What hormone is hypersecreted with acidophil adenoma of the pituitary gland? What is lesion/sign associated?
    • growth hormone
    • acromegaly
  3. What hormone is hypersecreted with adrenal cortical adenoma/carcinoma? What is lesion/sign?
    • estrogen
    • feminization
  4. What hormone is hypersecreted with pheochromocytoma of adrenal medulla? what is sign/lesion?
    • norepinephrine
    • hypertension
  5. What hormone is hypersecreted with thyroid follicular cell adenoma? What is lesion/sign?
    • T4/T3
    • increased basal metabolic rate
  6. What hormone is hypersecreted with parathyroid gland chief cell adenoma? lesion/sign?
    • parathyroid hormone
    • fibrous osteodystrophy
  7. What hormone is hypersecreted with pancreatic B-cell adenoma/carcinoma? lesion/sign?
    • insulin
    • hypoglycemia
  8. What type of endocrine disease is when a lesion in one organ secretes excess trophic hormone leading to long term stim/hypersecretion of hormone by the target organ?
    secondary endocrine hyperfunction
  9. How does renal failure lead to secondary hyperparathyroidism?
    decreased GFR --> hyperphosphatemia --> decline in serum Ca++ --> stim. parathyroid (and further destruction of tubules leads to decr. Ca absorption in GIT-->hypoCa --> demineralize skeleton)
  10. What nutritional imbalances lead to hyperparathyroidism?
    • diets too low in Ca or too high in P
    • or deficient in cholecalciferol
  11. How do paraneoplastic syndromes lead to hyperfunction of endocrine system?
    non-endocrine neoplasia secretes hormones or hormone-like factors (mostly peptides that are similar to native hormone)
  12. What is pseudohyperparathyroidism or humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy due to? What does it lead to in the patient?
    autonomous hypersecretion of PTH-rP by cancer cells, which mimics PTH --> excess moblization of Ca from bone --> persistent life-threatening hyperCa
  13. Iatrogenic syndromes of hormone excess....What is result of excess steroid administration? Insulin? T4/T3 in cats? Progesterone in dogs?
    • steroid --> iatrogenic Cushing's dz
    • excessive doses of insulin -->hypoglycemia
    • excess T4/T3 given --> hyperthyroid (esp. cat)
    • progesterone admin in dogs to prevent estrus--> acromegaly (indirect GH excess)
  14. What is subnormal hormone secretion due to destruction of secretory cells?
    primary hypofunction
  15. What are some general causes/examples of primary hypofunction?
    • immune mediated injury of adrenal cortex/thyroid/etc.
    • failure of development of gland (pituitary dwarfism)
    • congenital dyshormonogenetic goiter in ruminants
  16. What is destructive lesion in one organ that interferes w/secretion of trophic hormone, therefore detectable hypofunction in target organ?
    secondary hypofunction
  17. What are two reasons for endocrine dysfunction due to failure of target-cell response?
    • -alteration in hormone receptor on cell surface (ie. insulin resistant DM)
    • -lack of adenyl cyclase in cell membrane
  18. What broad functions does pituitary gland/hypophysis control? What are some hormones released from adenohypophysis v. neurohypophysis?
    • reproduction, metabolism, fluid/electrolyte balance, milk letdown/parturition
    • A: growth, luteinizing, thyroid stim., ACTH, melanocyte stimulating hormones
    • N: ADH/vasopressin, oxytocin
  19. What embryological abnormality leads to pituitary cysts and pituitary dwarfism? What canine breeds are prone?
    • failure of oropharyngeal ectoderm of Rathke's pouch
    • GSD, spitz, toy pinscher, carelian bear dogs
  20. What part of pituitary gland is absent with pituitary cysts/dwarfism? What lesions are seen?
    • absent adenohypophysis
    • pituitary dwarfism w/slow growth, stunting, symmetric alopecia and hyperpigmentation of skin
  21. what is difference between functional and non-functional neoplasms of pituitary?
    • functional produce trophic hormones that stimulate target organs
    • non-fx: do not secrete hormone but destructive to adjacent structures
  22. Do adults or young get adenoma/carcinoma? What about craniopharyngioma?
    • ademona: adult
    • craniopharyngioma: younger
  23. What 2 species commonly get ademona of pars intermedia?
    • dog
    • horse
  24. What is produced by ademonas of pars intermedia in horses? (5 things)
    POMC, CLIP, alpha-MSH, Beta-MSH, and Beta-endorphine
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Path MT, Endo I
Path MT, Endo I