KIN 2509 Ch 7

  1. gastroenterology
    • the branch of medicine concerned with digestive diseases
    • concentrates on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases involving the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
  2. anterior
    • before or in front of
    • in anatomical nomenclature, refers to the ventral or abdominal side of the body
  3. bilirubin
    the orange-yellow pigment of bile, formed principly by the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells (RBCs) after termination of their normal lifespan
  4. cholecystokinin
    a hormone, produced by the mucosa of the upper intestine, that stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder and secretion of pancreatic enzymes
  5. chyme
    the semifluid, homogenous, creamy paste produced by gastric digestion of food
  6. defecation
    the elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the rectum
  7. distension
    the state of being distended, swollen, or stretched out
  8. emulsification
    • the breakdown of large fat globules into smaller, uniformly distributed particules
    • accomplished mainly by bile acids in the small intestine
    • first step in the preparation of fat for chemical digestion by specific enzymes
  9. hydrochloric acid
    an acid that is normally present in gastric juice
  10. lipid
    any of a group of fats or fatlike substances that are insoluble in water (i.e. fats and cholesterol) but soluble in fat solvents such as alcohol, ether, and chloroform
  11. mucous membranes
    • a type of epithelial tissue that lines body surfaces and excretes a thick substance
    • Ex - the linings of the mouth, the digestive tube, the respiratory passages, and the genitourinary tract
  12. pepsin
    • the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice that begins protein digestion
    • the gastric glands produce pepsin continuously but in different amounts, depending on the quantity of food absorbed
  13. peristalsis
    progressive, wavelike contractions that propel foodstuffs through the digestive tract, bile through the bile duct, and urine in the urinary system through the ureters
  14. pathway of food through the digestive system
    • food enters
    • mouth
    • pharynx
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
    • cecum
    • ascending colon
    • transverse colon
    • sigmoid colon
    • rectum
    • anus
    • feces expelled
  15. or/o
  16. stomat/o
  17. gloss/o
  18. lingu/o
  19. bucc/o
  20. cheil/o
  21. labi/o
  22. dent/o
  23. odont/o
  24. gingiv/o
  25. sial/o
    saliva, salivary gland
  26. stomatopathy
    • any disease of the mouth
    • synonymous with stomatosis
  27. glossitis
    inflammation of the tongue
  28. cheilosis
    • abnormal condition of the lips
    • characterized by scales & fissures caused by a deficiency of vitamin B complex (especially riboflavin) in the diet
  29. gingivitis
    inflammation of the gums
  30. sialolith
    a calculus or stone formed in a salivary gland or duct
  31. esophag/o
  32. pharyng/o
    pharynx (throat)
  33. esophagocele
    a hernia of the esophagus
  34. pharyngitis
    inflammation of the pharynx (throat)
  35. gastr/o
  36. pylor/o
    pylorus, pyloric sphincter
  37. duoden/o
  38. enter/o
    intestine (usually small intestine)
  39. jejun/o
  40. ile/o
  41. gastrectomy
    partial or total removal of the stomach
  42. pyloroplasty
    surgical repair of the pyloric sphincter
  43. duodenoscopy
    visual examination of the duodenum (first part of the small intestine)
  44. enteropathy
    an intestinal disease
  45. jejunorrhaphy
    suture of the jejunum (second part of the small intestine)
  46. ileitis
    inflammation of the ileum (third part of the small intestine)
  47. append/o
  48. appendic/o
  49. col/o
  50. colon/o
  51. sigmoid/o
    sigmoid colon
  52. rect/o
  53. proct/o
    anus, rectume
  54. appendectomy
    excision of the appendix (wormlike projection that hangs from the cecum)
  55. appendicitis
    inflammation of the appendix
  56. colostomy
    surgical creation of an artificial opening on the abdominal wall by incising the colon and drawing it out to the surface
  57. colonoscopy
    visual examination of the inner surface of the colon using a colonoscope
  58. sigmoidotomy
    incision of the sigmoid colon
  59. rectocele
    • herniation or protrusion of the rectum
    • synonymous with proctocele
  60. proctodynia
    pain in the rectum or around the anus
  61. hepat/o
  62. cholangi/o
    bile vessel
  63. hepatomegaly
    enlargement of the liver
  64. cholangiogram
    radiographic record of the bile ducts obtained by cholangiography
  65. chol/e
    bile, gall
  66. cholecyst/o
  67. choledoch/o
    bile duct
  68. pancreat/o
  69. cholelithiasis
    formation or presence of calculi (bile stones) in the gallbladder or common duct
  70. cholecystectomy
    excision of the gallbladder
  71. choledochostomy
    forming an opening into the common bile duct
  72. an-
    without, not
  73. dia-
    through, across
  74. dys-
    painful, bad, difficult
  75. hyper-
    excessive, above normal
  76. peri-
  77. anorexia
    loss of apetite; aversion to food
  78. diarrhea
    abnormally frequent discharge or flow of fluid fecal matter from the bowel
  79. dyspepsia
    difficult digestion
  80. hyperemesis
    excessive vomiting
  81. periodontist
    • a specialist in peridontics
    • branch of dentistry concerned with the treatment of abnormal conditions of the tissues around the teeth
  82. post-
    after, behind
  83. sub-
    under, below
  84. postprandial
    after a meal
  85. sublingual
    pertaining to the area under the tongue
  86. cheilitis
    inflammation of the lip
  87. dental caries
    • a plaque disease caused by the complex interaction of food, especially starches and sugars, with bacter that form dental plaque
    • tooth decay
  88. leukoplakia
    a precancerous, slowly developing change in the mucous membrane characterized by thickened, white, firmly attached patches that are slightly raised and sharply circumscribed
  89. periodontal disease
    a disease of the supporting structures of the teeth (the periodontium) including the gums and bone structure to which the teeth are anchored
  90. sialoadenitis
    inflammation of a salivary gland
  91. stomatitis
    • any inflammatory condition of the mouth
    • may result from infection by bacteria, viruses, or fungi; from exposure to certain chemicals or drugs; from vitamin deficiency; or from a systemic inflammatory disease
  92. aphthous stomatitis
    a recurring condition characterized by the eruption of painful ulcers (canker sores) on the mucous membranes of the mouth
  93. herpetic stomatitis
    a form of stomatitis caused by a herpes virus infection
  94. thrush
    an infection of the mouth or throat, especially in infants and young children, caused by Candida albicans
  95. esophageal varices
    tortuous (twisted) dilatation of esophageal veins situated at the distal end of the esophagus, especially susceptible to ulceration and hemorrhage
  96. pharyngitis
    • the most common throat disorder
    • an acute or chronic inflammation of the pharynx
  97. achalasia
    an abnormal condition characterized by inability of a muscle to relax, particularly the cardiac sphincter of the stomach
  98. gastroenteritis
    inflammation of the stomach and small intestine, accompanying numerous gastrointestinal disorders
  99. gastroesophageal reflux
    a backflow of contents of the stomach into the esophagus; often the result of incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter
  100. pyloric stenosis
    narrowing of the pyloric sphincter at the outlet of the stomach, causing an obstruction that blocks the flow of food into the small intestine
  101. ulcer
    • a lesion or erosion of the mucous membrane
    • major forms - gastric & duodenal ulcers
  102. celiac disease
    an inborn error of metabolism characterized by the inability to hydrolyze peptides contained in gluten
  103. Crohn disease
    a chronic inflammation, usually of the ileum, although it may affect any portion of the gastrointestinal tract
  104. colitis
    inflammation of the colon or large intestine; usually due to infection
  105. ulcerative colitis
    a chronic inflammation and ulceration of the colon, often beginning in the rectum or sigmoid colon and extending upward into the entire colon
  106. diverticular disease
    condition in which bulging pouches (diverticula) in the GI wall push the mucosal lining through the surrounding muscle
  107. diverticulitis
    inflammation of one or more diverticula
  108. diverticulosis
    the presence of pouchlike herniations through the muscular layer of the colon, particularly the sigmoid colon
  109. dysentery
    inflammation of the intestine, especially of the colon, which may be caused by chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites
  110. Hirschsprung disease
    congenital absence of autonomic ganglia (groups of nerve cells) in the smooth muscle wall of the colon, which causes poor or absent peristalsis in the involved segment of the colon, accumulation of feces, and dilation of the bowl (megacolon)
  111. intestinal obstruction
    partial or complete obstruction of the small or large bowel lumen
  112. mechanical intestinal obstruction
    an obstruction that occurs when there is a blockage within the intestine from pressure on the intestinal walls
  113. nonmechanical intestinal obstruction
    an obstruction that occurs when the intestinal peristalsis decreases or stops because of vascular or neuromuscular pathology
  114. intussusception
    the sliding of the inner segment of intestine into another segment
  115. irritable bowel syndrome
    chronic or periodic diarrhea alternating with constipation
  116. polyposis coli
    a condition of multiple polyps in the large intestine
  117. volvulus
    a twisting of the bowel on itself, causing intestinal obstruction
  118. fistula
    an abnormal tubelike passage from a normal cavity or tube to a free surface or to another cavity
  119. anal fistula
    a fistula near the anus that may open into the rectum
  120. hermorrhoids
    dilated, tortuous (twisted) veins in the mucous membrane
  121. external hemorrhoids
    • hermorrhoids that involve veins outside the anal sphincter
    • they are usually not painful
    • bleeding does not occur unless a hemorrhoidal vein ruptures or thromboses
  122. internal hemorrhoids
    hemorrhoids that involve veins above the internal sphincter of the anus
  123. cirrhosis
    • chronic liver disease characterized by the destruction of liver cells
    • eventually leads to impaired liver function and jaundice
  124. hepatitis
    inflammatory condition of the liver, characterized by jaundice, hepatomegaly, anorexia, abdominal and gastric discomfort, abnormal liver function, clay-colored stools, and tea-colored urine
  125. viral hepatitis
    • inflammation of the liver caused by a virus
    • marked by hepatic cells destruction, necrosis, and autolysis; leading to anorexia, jaundice, and hepatomegaly
  126. hepatitis A
    • hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus
    • characterized by the slow onset of signs & symptoms
  127. hepatitis B
    hepatitis caused by hepatitis B virus
  128. hepatitis C
    • also known as non-A, non-B hepatitis
    • transmitted largely by blood transfusion or percutaneous inoculation
  129. hepatitis D
    • delta hepatitis
    • a form of hepatitis that occurs only in patients infected with hepatitis B
  130. hepatitis E
    • epidemic non-A, non-B hepatitis
    • self-limited type of hepatitis, common in developing countries
    • may occur after natural disasters because of fecally contaminated water or food
  131. pancreatitis
    an inflammatory condition of the pancreas that may be acute or chronic
  132. acute pancreatitis
    pancreatitis of sudden onset
  133. chronic pancreatitis
    pancreatitis of slow progression or frequent recurrence
  134. cholelithiasis
    the presence or formation of stones in the gallbladder, also known as gallstones
  135. achlorhydia
    absence of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice
  136. anorexia
    lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
  137. ascites
    abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
  138. borborygymus
    an audible abdominal sound produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis
  139. cachexia
    • a state of ill health, malnutrition, and wasting
    • may occur in many chronic diseases, malignancies, and infections
  140. constipation
    • a change in normal bowel habits characterized by decreased infrequent, difficult defecation or passage of hard, dry stools
    • sluggish action of the bowels
  141. diarrhea
    a change in bowel habits characterized by the frequent passage of loose, fluid, unformed stools
  142. dyspepsia
    a vague feeling of epigastric discomfort, felt after eating
  143. flatus
    air or gas in the intestine that is passed through the rectum
  144. hernia
    a protrusion or projection of an organ or a part of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it
  145. femoral hernia
    • a loop of intestine descends through the femoral canal into the groin
    • surgical repair (herniorrhaphy) is the usual treatment
  146. hiatal hernia
    protrusion of a portion of the stomach upward through the diaphragm, commonly producing no symptoms
  147. inguinal hernia
    • a type of hernia in which a loop of intestine enters the inguinal canal
    • in a man, it sometimes fills the entire scrotal sac
  148. umbilical hernia
    a soft, skin-covered protrusion of intestine and omentum through a weakness in the abdominal wall around the umbilicus
  149. jaundice
    a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae of the eyes, caused by higher than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood
  150. melena
    abnormal black tarry stool that has a distinctive odor and contains digested blood
  151. nausea
    unpleasant wave-like sensation in the throat or abdomen, usually preceding vomiting
  152. pruritis ani
    itching of varying intensity of the skin around the anus
  153. asteatorrhea
    • higher than normal amounts of fat in the feces
    • any condition in which fats are poorly absorbed by the small intestine
  154. barium enema (lower GI series)
    • radiographic examination of the rectum and colon following administration of barium sulfate (radiopaque contrast medium) into the rectum
    • this procedure is used for diagnosis of obstructions, tumors, or other abnormalities (i.e. ulcerative colitis)
  155. barium swallow (upper GI series)
    radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine following oral administration of barium sulfate (radiopaque contrast medium)
  156. cholangiography
    radiographic examination for outlining the major bile ducts by intravenous injection or direct instillation of a radiopaque contrast medium
  157. intravenous cholangiography
    in intravenous cholangiography, a contrast agent is injected slowly into the vein, and radiographs are taken of the region of the gallbladder
  158. percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
    a radiographic examination of the structure of the bile ducts
  159. oral cholecystography
    a radiographic examination of the gallbladder after the ingestion of a contrast medium
  160. computed tomography
    • a radiographic imaging modality that is more sensitive than a conventional x-ray examination
    • a scanner and detector circle the patient's body, sending images to a computer, which allows the radiographer and physician to view any part of the body
    • the image produced represents a detailed cross secretion of tissue structure
  161. abdominal CT
    provides visualization of the internal organs of the abdomen, such as the gallbladder, liver, bile ducts, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, and bladder
  162. endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
    direct radiographic visualization with a fiberoptic endoscope, including radiographic fibroscopy, to examine the size and the filling of the pancreatic and biliary ducts
  163. fluoroscopy
    a radiographic technique for visually examining a part of the body or the function of an organ with a fluoroscope
  164. magnetic resonance imaging
    imaging procedure that uses radiofrequency radiation as its source of energy
  165. ultrasonagraphy
    • used of sound waves (ultrasound) to produce an image of an organ or tissue
    • ultrasonic echoes are recorded as they strike tissues of different densities
  166. abdominal ultrasonography
    ultrasonographic visualization of the internal organs of the abdomen, such as the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas, kidneys, bladder, and ureters
  167. endoscopy
    • visualization of the interior of organs and cavities of the body with an endoscope
    • the organ being examined dictates the name of the endoscopic procedure
  168. upper GI endoscopy
    visual examination of the esophaus (esophagoscopy), stomach (gastroscopy), and duodenum (duodenoscopy), using a lighted, fiberoptic endoscope
  169. lower GI endoscopy
    visual examination of the colon (colonoscopy), sigmoid colon (sigmoidoscopy), rectum and anal canal (proctoscopy) using a lighted, fiberoptic endoscope
  170. stool culture
    the plating of feces to one or more culture media to grow colonies of microorganisms for the purpose of identifying specific pathogen(s)
  171. stool guaiac / hemoccult
    test performed on feces using the reagent gum guaiac to detect the presence of blood in the feces that is not apparent on visual inspection (obscure, hidden, or occult blood)
  172. liver function tests
    • a batter of tests used to determine liver cell dysfunction and liver disease
    • alanine aminotransferase: blood test to measure the concentration of the enzyme ALT in the blood
    • alkaline phosphatase: test to measure the concentration of the enzyme ALP in the blood; increased levels of ALP are found in liver disease
    • aspartate aminotransferase: test to measure the concentration of the enzyme AST in the blood, which is released following damage to cells, particularly cardiac muscle and liver cells
    • gamma glutamyltransferase: blood test to determine liver cell dysfunction and to detect alchol-induced liver disease
    • bilirubin: test to measure the bilirubin concentration in the blood
  173. biopsy
    removal of a small piece of living tissue for microscopic examination, usually to establish or confirm a diagnosis, estimate prognosis, or follow the course of a disease
  174. aspiration
    removal of living tissue, for microscopic examination, by suction through a fine needle attached to a syringe
  175. liver aspiration
    a special needle is introduced into the liver under local anesthesia to obtain a specimen for pathological examination
  176. needle aspiration
    removal of tissue for microscopic examination by use of a needle, usually attached to a syringe
  177. anastomosis
    surgical connection between two vessels; surgical joining of two ducts, blood vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
  178. ileorectal anastomosis
    connection between the ileum and rectum after total colectomy as is sometimes performed in the treatment of ulcerative colitis
  179. intestinal anastomosis
    connection of two portions of the intestines, also called eneteroenterostomy
  180. cheilorrhaphy
    surgical procedure that sutures the lip, such as in the repair of a congenitally cleft lip or a lacterated lip
  181. colostomy
    surgical creation of an artificial anus on the abdominal wall by incising the colon and drawing it out to the surface through which feces will be expelled into a disposable bag
  182. hemorrhoidectomy
    excision of one or more hemorrhoids
  183. paracentesis
    surgical puncture of the peritoneal cavity (abdomen) to withdraw fluid
  184. gastric lavage
    washing out of the stomach; used to empty the stomach when the contents are irritating, as in prolonged postanesthetic vomiting and some cases of regurgitant vomiting in acute intestinal obstruction
  185. nasogastric intubation
    insertion of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach to relieve gastric distension by removing gas, gastric secretions, or food; to instill medication, food, or fluids; or to obtain a specimen for laboratory analysis
  186. antacids
    drugs that exert a therapeutic effect by neutralizing acid, especially in the stomach and duodenum
  187. antidiarrheals
    drugs that relieve diarrhea either by absorbing the excess fluids that cause diarrhea or by lessening intestinal motility (slowing the movement of fecal material through the intestine), allowing more time for absorption of water
  188. antiemetics / antinauseants
    drugs that prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting, mainly by acting on brain control centers to stop nerve impulses
  189. antiflatulents
    drugs that reduce the feeling of gaseousness and flatulences accompanying indigestion
  190. bismuth compounds
    agents that may be used for protective effects in ulcer disease and for mild to moderate diarrhea
  191. emetics
    agents that induce vomiting, especially in cases of poisoning
  192. H2 blockers
    drugs used to treat ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease by blocking the release of acid in the gastric parietal cells, which line the stomach
  193. mucosal protective agents
    agents that act topically on the ulcer surface and bind directly to necrotic areas, forming a protective layer over the ulcer, allowing it to heal
  194. prostaglandins
    substances that inhibit acid secretion and stimulate the production of protective mucus bicarbonate
  195. proton pump inhibitors
    • specifically inhibit acid production
    • used in the treatment of peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease
  196. BM
    bowel movement
  197. Dx
  198. GB
  199. GER
    gastroesophageal reflux
  200. GERD
    gastroesophageal reflux disease
  201. GI
  202. HAV
    hepatitis A virus
  203. HBV
    hepatitis B virus
  204. HCV
    hepatitis C virus
  205. HDV
    hepatitis D virus
  206. HEV
    hepatitis E virus
  207. IBS
    irritable bowel syndrome
  208. IV
  209. LLQ
    left lower quadrant
  210. LUQ
    left upper quadrant
  211. NG
  212. PE
    • physical examination
    • pulmonary embolism
  213. PMH
    past medical history
  214. RLQ
    right lower quadrant
  215. RUQ
    right upper quadrant
  216. ABC
    aspiration biopsy cytology
  217. ALT
    • alanine aminotransferase (elevated in liver & heart disease)
    • enzyme tests of liver function
  218. AST
    • angiotensin sensitivity test
    • aspartate aminotransferase
  219. alk phos
    alkaline phosphatase
  220. Ba
  221. BaE, BE
    barium enema
  222. BAO
    basal acid output
  223. BUN
    blood urea nitrogen
  224. cm
  225. CT
    computed tomography
  226. CT scan
    computed tomography scan
  227. CAT scan
    x-ray images in a cross-sectional view
  228. EGD
  229. ERCP
    endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
  230. ERS
    endoscopic retrograde sphincterectomy
  231. ESWL
    extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy
  232. FBS
    fasting blood sugar
  233. GBS
    gallbladder series
  234. GGT
    gamma glutamyltransferase
  235. GTT
    glucose tolerance test
  236. IVC
    intravenous cholangiography
  237. LFT
    liver function test(s)
  238. MAO
    maximal acid output
  239. OCG
    oral cholecystography
  240. PO
    • postoperative
    • period of onset
  241. PUD
    peptic ulcer disease
  242. UGI
    upper gastrointestinal tract (x-ray)
  243. MRI
    magnetic resonance imaging
  244. US
  245. ac
    before meals (ante cibum)
  246. bid
    twice a day
  247. hs
    at bedtime
  248. npo
    nothing by mouth
  249. pc, pp
    after meals (postprandial)
  250. po
    by mouth (per os)
  251. prn
    as required
  252. qam, qm
    every morning
  253. qd
    every day
  254. qh
    • every hour
    • q#h - every # hrs
  255. q2h
    every 2 hours
  256. qid
    four times a day
  257. qod
    every other day
  258. qpm, qn
    every night
  259. stat
  260. tid
    three times a day
Card Set
KIN 2509 Ch 7
Ch 7 Gastroenterology