1. Autotrophs
    Make their own organic matter from inorganic nutrients and an environmental energy source
  2. Heterotrophs
    Must feed on organic matter for energy
  3. Producers
    Photosynthetic green plants, Photosynthetic bacteria, Chemosynthetic bacteria
  4. Photosynthetic green plants
    use chlorophyll to absorb light energy
  5. Photosynthetic bacteria
    use purple pigment to absorb light energy
  6. Chemosynthetic bacteria:
    use high-energy inorganic chemicals such as hydrogen sulfide
  7. Consumers
    Primary consumers/ herbivores, Omnivores, Secondary consumers/ carnivores, higher orders of consumers/ carnivores, parasites
  8. Primary consumers/ herbivores
    animals that feed exclusively on plants
  9. Omnivores:
    animasl that feed on both plants and animals
  10. Secondary consumers/ carnivores:
    animals that feed on primary consumers
  11. Higher orders of consumers/ carnivores:
    animals that feed on other carnivores
  12. Parasites:
    Plants or animals that become associated with another plant or animal and feed on it over an extended period of time
  13. Decomposers
    Scavengers, Detritus feeders, Chemical decomposers
  14. Scavangers:
    eat larger dead things, may also eat living things some of the time
  15. Detritus feeders:
    organisms that feed directly on detritus
  16. Chemical decomposers:
    fungi and bacteria that cause rotting
  17. Climate and major biomes
    Moisture is generally the overriding factor determining the type of biome that may be supported in a region
  18. Biome
    Deserts, Grasslands/ Praries, Tropical Rain Forests, Temperate Forests, Coniferous Forest, Tundra
  19. Aquatic systems:
    lakes/ ponds, streams/ rivers, inland wetlands, Estuaries, coastal Ocean, Open Ocean
  20. Trophic level
    a feeding level defined with respect to teh primary source of energy
  21. Trophic levels and how energy flows through a system
    Green plants are at the first trophic level, primary consumers at second, secondary consumers at the third, and so on. as piomass pyrmaid suggests when energy flows from one trophic level to the next, only a small fraction is actually passed on.
  22. small fractions on trophic levels are passed on due to three things:
    • Much of the preceding Trophic level is biomass that is not consumed by herbivores
    • much of what is consumed is used as energy to fuel the heterotroph's cells and tissues
    • some of what is consumed is undigested and passed through the organism as waste.
    • as it passes through the food web it is consumed more and more till it is gone
  23. Producers:
    Organisms that use light energy to construct their organic constituents from inorganic compounds
  24. Consumers:
    organisms that derive the energy from feeding on other organisms or their products
  25. Primary consumer:
    an organism that feeds more/ less exclusively on green plants or their products, such as seeds and nuts
  26. Secondary consumer;
    an organism that feeds more/ less exclusively on other animals that feed on plants
  27. Resilience:
    the tendency of ecosystems to recover from disturbances
  28. Succession:
    the gradual or sometimes rapid change in species that occupy a given area, with some species invading and becoming more numerous, while others decline in population and disappear, succession is caused by a change in one or more abiotic or biotic factors that benefit some species at the expense of others
  29. Resilience theory in ecosystem structure
    Fire does more good than harm
  30. Ecosystme Managment
    Federal Gov. working to keep lands in Natural state
  31. how many plants and animals are at risk of extinction?
    over 20,000, 1/3, 67%
  32. Instrumetnal:
    • existence benfits some other entity.
    • value to humans = anthropocentric
  33. Intrinsic:
    value as a living being/ value for its own sake
  34. Why is biodiversity important/ why is it declinign?
    • it is important because diversity is essential for natural goods and services. i.e. diverse forests and coral reefs are buffers against costal storms and floods, they provide food and materials for medicines, contain unique genes, interaction effects many species
    • decline is due to habitat destruction (converting ladn for differnet uses, fragmenting it and creating dangerous edges, simplifying the habitat to benefit production of one or a few species), invasive species (introducing a non-native population with no preditors)pollution, overpopulation, and overexploitation
  35. Biota- Genetic Bank:
    The concept that naturla ecosystmes with all their species serve as a repository of genes that may be drawn upon to imporve domestic plants and animals and to develop new medicines, among other uses.
  36. Trends that indicate that thos in power are paying more attention to the needs of indigenous peopel and the importance of forest goods and services (other than just wood) are the following:
    • practicing sustainable forest managment
    • designating forest area for conservation
    • establishign plantations of trees for wood or other products: cacao, rubber, etc
    • setting aside extractive reserves that yield nontimber goods: latex, nuts, etc
    • Preserving forests as part of a national heritage and putting them to use as tourist attractions
    • putting forests under the control of indigenous farmers- they tend to exercise stewardship in a sustainable way
  37. Conservation:
    the management of a resource in such a way as to assure that it will continue to provide maximum benefit to humasn over the long run. Energy: saving energy by cutting back on the use of heating, air conditioning, transportation and so on and also by increasing the efficiency of energy use.
  38. Preservation:
    in protectin gnatural areas,the objective of preservation is to ensure the continuity of species and ecosystems, regardless of their potential utility
  39. Growth Rate
    the rate of growth of a population, as a precentage. Multiplied by the existing population this rate gives the net yearly increase (or decrease, if negative) for the population
  40. Total fertility rate:
    the averagenumber of children each woman has over her lifetime, expresssed as a rate based on fertility occuring during a particular year
  41. Replacement- Level Fertility:
    A fertility rate that will only replace a woman and her partner, theoretically 2.0, but adjusted slightly higher because of mortality and failure to reproduce
  42. Infant Mortality:
    the number of infant deaths per thousand live births
  43. Population profile:
    a bar graph plotting numbers of males and females for successive ages in the population, starting with the youngest at the bottom
  44. Populaiton momentum:
    the effect of current age structure on future population growth. Young populations will contineu growing even after replacement level fertility has been reached, due to reproduction by already exxisting age groups
  45. Crude Birthrate:
    the number of live births per thousand in a population in a given year
  46. Crude Death Rate:
    The number of death per thousand in population in a given year
  47. Epidemiologic Transition:
    the shift from high death rates to low death rates in a populatino as a result of modern medical and sanitary developments
  48. Fertility transitions:
    the decrease of birthrates from high levels to low levels in population
  49. Demographic Transition:
    the tendency of a population to shift from high birth and death rates to low. as a result of the epidemiologic and fertility transitions, the result is a population that grows very slow, if at all.
  50. j & s curve
    • J- continual upward increase population boom
    • S- population boom than tapper off
  51. Population growth in differnet world regions
    because of larger populations and higher birthrates, devloping countries represent an ever growin share of the world's population. this trend is expected to continue
  52. Low income nations generally include those in:
    eastern, western, and centrla africa, india and other central asian countries, and a fewer former soviet block countries
  53. General characteristics of wealthy vs poor nations in terms of:
    Population growth rate, toatl fertility rate, infant mortality, literacy, environment, nutrition, and populaiton profile
  54. Fertility Transition:
    the pattern of change in birthrates in a human society from higher rates to low, a major component of teh demogrpahic transition
  55. Demographic Transition:
    the transition fo a human population from a condition fo a high birthrate/death rate to a condition fo low birth/ death rate a demographic trnasition may result from economic or social development
  56. Main Revolutions
    Neolithic, Industrial, Medical, Green, and Environmental
  57. Neolithic:
    the level of agriculture began by human societies around 12,000 years ago leading to more permanent settlement and population increases
  58. Industrial:
    dudring 19th century the development of manufacturing processes using fossil fuels and based on application fo scientific knowledge mass production from the utilization fo raw materials
  59. Medical:
    Medical advantages and public sanitation led to spectacular reductions in mortality, beginning in late 1800s and extending to the present
  60. Green:
    Use of pesticides, new irrigation techniques, fertilizer usage increase crop yields, industrialized agriculture
  61. Environmental:
    in teh view of some, a coming change in the adaption of humans to the rising deterioraiton of the environment, the Environmental Revolution shoujdl bring about sustainable interactions with the environment
  62. South Korea and pakistan started at about same level of economic trouble 25 years ago
    but South Korea has about 3 times the growth rate due to better education and literacy
  63. A main difference between developed countries and developing countreis is:
    that children often die from very common ailments in 3rd world countries
  64. Infectious diseases are a greater cause of death in thrid world countries than
    cancer and cardiovascular disease
  65. Primary reason poor have larger families
    • security in old age
    • infant and childhood mortality
    • helping hadns
    • status of women
    • avaiablilty of contraceptives
  66. Abortions represent 21% of the pregnancies around the world, and
    miscarriages and stillbirths accounts for another 15%
Card Set
chp 5-9