Legal Environment of Business Chapter 7

  1. Crime
    a wrong against society proclaimed in a statute and punishable by society through fines and/or imprisonment-or, in some cases, death
  2. Beyond a Reasonable Doubt
    the standard of proof used in criminal cases. If there is any reasonable doubt that a criminal defendant committed the crime with which she or he has been charged, then the verdict must be "not guilty"
  3. Robbery
    the act of forcefully and unlawfully taking cash, personal property, or any other article of value from another. Force or intimidation is usually necessary for an act of theft to be considered robbery
  4. Burglary
    the act of unlawfully entering or breaking into a building with the intent to commit a felony. (Some state statutes expand this to include the intent to commit any crime)
  5. Larceny
    the wrongful taking and carrying away of another person's personal property with the intent to permanently deprive the owner of the property. Some states classify larceny as either grand or petit, depending on the property's value
  6. Arson
    the intentional burning of a building owned by another. Some statutes have expanded this to include any real property regardless of ownership and the destruction of property by other means-for example, by explosion
  7. Forgery
    the fraudulent making or altering of any writing in a way that changes the legal rights and liabilities of another
  8. White-Collaw Crime
    nonviolent crime committed by individuals or corporations to obtain a personal or business advantage
  9. Embezzlement
    the fraudulent appropriation of funds or other property by a person to whom the funds or property has been entrusted
  10. Money Laundering
    falsely reporting income that has been obtained through criminal activity as income obtained through a legitimate business enterprise-in effect, "laundering" the "dirty money"
  11. Felony
    a crime-such as arson, murder, rape, or robbery-that carries the most severe sanctions, ranging from one year in a state or federal prison to the death penalty
  12. Misdemeanor
    a lessor crime than a felony, punishable by a fine or incarceration in jail for up to one year
  13. Petty Offense
    in criminal law, the least serious kind of criminal offense, such as a traffic or building-code violation
  14. Self-Defense
    the legally recognized privilege to protect oneself or one's property against injury by another. The privilege of self-defense usually applies only to acts that are reasonably necessary to protect oneself, one's property, or another person
  15. Consent
    voluntary agreement to a proposition or an act of another; a concurrence of wills
  16. Duress
    unlawful pressure brought to bear on a person, causing the person to perform an act that she or he would not otherwise perform
  17. Entrapment
    in criminal law, a defense in which the defendant claims that he or she was induced by a public official-usually an undercover agent or police officer-to commit a crime that he or she would otherwise not have committed
  18. Self-Incrimination
    the giving of testimony that may subject the testifier to criminal prosecution. The Fifth Amendment to the Constitution protects against self- incrimination by providing that no person "shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself"
  19. Plea Bargaining
    the process by which a criminal defendant and the prosecutor in a criminal case work out a mutually satisfactory disposition of the case, subject to court approval; usually involves the defendant's pleading guilty to a lesser offense in return for a lighter sentence
  20. Search Warrant
    an order granted by a public authority, such as a judge, that authorizes law enforcement personnel to search particular premises or property
  21. Probable Cause
    reasonable grounds for believing that a person should be arrested or searched
  22. Double Jeopardy
    a situation occuring when a person is tried twice for the same criminal offense; prohibited by the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution
  23. Exclusionary Rule
    in criminal procedure. a rule under which any evidence that is obtained in violation of the accused's constitutional rights guaranteed by the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Amendments, as well as any evidence derived from illegally obtained evidence, will not be admissible in court
  24. Indictment
    a charge by a grand jury that a named person has committed a crime
  25. Grand Jury
    a group of citizens called to decide, after hearing the state's evidence, whether a reasonable basis (probable cause) exists for believing that a crime has been committed and that a trial ought to be held
  26. Information
    a formal accusation or complaint (without an indictment) issued in certain types of actions (usually criminal actions involving lesser crimes) by a government prosecutor
  27. Cyber Crime
    a crime that occurs online, in the virtual community of the Internet, as opposed to the physical world
  28. Hacker
    a person who uses one computer to break into another. Professional computer programmers refer to such persons as "crackers"
  29. Cyberterrorist
    a hacker whose purpose is to exploit a target computer for a serious impact, such as corrupting a program to sabotage a business
  30. Identity Theft
    the act of stealing another's identifying information-such as a name, date of birth, or Social Security number-and using that information to access the victim's financial resources
Card Set
Legal Environment of Business Chapter 7
Legal Environment of Business Chapter 7