Fecal Cytology

  1. What is fecal cytology?
    diagnosis of disease caused by microorganisms that live in the GI tract
  2. What are the two types of microorganisms?
    • bacteria
    • protozoa
  3. What is the most normal bacteria?
  4. What happens when the flora overgrows?
    causes disease
  5. What does a normal smear have?
    bacteria everywhere
  6. Why is there bacteria in the GI tract?
    • synthesize vitamins
    • prevent colonization of pathogenic bacteria
    • stimulate development of the caecum and Peyer's patches in the GI tract
    • Stimulate production of cross-reactive antibodies
  7. What are the different shapes of bacteria?
    • coccus/cocci
    • bacillus/bacilli
    • spirillium
  8. What does coccus/cocci look like?
    spherical shape
  9. What does bacillus/bacilli look like?
    rod shape
  10. What does spirillium look like?
    comma or spiral shape
  11. What are the most common cocci?
    • enterococcus faecalis
    • staphylococcus aureus
  12. What is coliforms?
    group of rod bacteria common in feces that can ferment lactose
  13. When do we do fecal cytology?
    whenever we see diarrhea
  14. What kind of sample do we need to do fecal cytology and why?
    • fresh sample
    • samples more than 15 minutes old can be unrewarding as the bacteria causing the problem may be destroyed by exposure to room air
  15. How can we collect a fresh sample?
    • gloved finger
    • fecal loop
    • thermometer (residue fromm thermometer)
  16. How do you make a fecal smear?
    • spread to thin on a slide
    • allow to air dry
    • heat fix (hair dryer or flame)
    • stain with diff quik
  17. What do you do if the smear is too thick?
    mix with saline
  18. What does a normal fecal cytology look like?
    • >90% mixed population of rods
    • few epithelial cells
    • few/no WBCs
    • no RBCs
  19. What types of animals do we see campylobacteriosis in?
    young animals in crowded conditions
  20. What are the signs of campylobacteriosis?
    • mucoid diarrhea with or without blood
    • fever
    • inappetance
  21. What is campylobacter?
    a type of spirillium
  22. What does campylobacter look like?
    very skinny
  23. What do we scan for on 10x?
    • large numbers of epithelial cells
    • abnormal cells
    • evaluate distribution of the sample and find a representative area to examine closer
  24. What do large numbers of epithelial cells indicate?
    • intestinal irritation
    • sloughing of intestinal mucosa
  25. What do abnormal cells look like under 10x?
    large cells with abnormal nuclei, dark staining, variable N:C ratio
  26. What do we look for under 40x?
    • RBCs and WBCs
    • scan multiple fields and evaluate the numbers of RBCs and WBCs per hpf
  27. What do we look for under 100x?
    • is the population of bacteria > or = to 90% rods?
    • are the rods of different lengths and widths?
    • do you notice any sporulated bacteria?
    • are there cocci present?
    • do you see spirillium?
    • do you see any other organisms or cells?
  28. When you see RBCs in a fecal smear what does that mean?
    intestinal bleeding
  29. What does it mean when there is more WBCs than RBCs?
    indicates colonic inflammation
  30. What could cause colonic inflammation?
    • infection
    • dietary indiscretion
    • parasites
    • protozoa
    • neoplasia
  31. What is the active for of giardia?
  32. What does trophozoites look like?
    pear shaped, bi-nucleate, flagellated
  33. What form of giardia is out in nature that the animal ingests?
  34. What does the cyst for of giardia look like?
    oval shaped
  35. What does balantidium look like?
    • huge (40 - 60um)
    • ciliated all the way around
  36. What is histoplasma?
    fungal organism
  37. Image Upload 1

    What is this?
    balantidium (huge, ciliated)
  38. Image Upload 2

    What is this?
    campylobacter (very skinny)
  39. Image Upload 3

    What is the arrow pointing to?
    clostridium (hole in the center)
  40. Image Upload 4

    What type of cells are these?
    columnar epithelial cells
  41. Image Upload 5

    What is beside A, B, and C?
    • A: squamous cells
    • B: WBC
    • C: RBC
  42. Image Upload 6

    What is this?
  43. Image Upload 7

    What is the arrow pointing to?
    squamous cell
  44. Image Upload 8

    What is this?
    trophozoite (pear shaped, bi-nucleate, flagellated)
Card Set
Fecal Cytology
Lab Tech