1. Transduction
    Process in which a sense organ changes, or transforms, physical energy into electrical signals that become neural impulses, which may be sent to the brain for processing

    Ex: Skunk spray send electrical signal to brain
  2. Adaption
    Decreasing response of the sense organs, the more they are exposed to a continuous level of stimulation

    Ex: Wearing jewelry or glasses for a period of time and getting use to it
  3. Sensation
    Relatively meaningless bits of information that results when the brain processes electrical signals that come from the sense organs
  4. Perceptions
    Meaningful sensory experiences that result after the brain combines hundreds of sensations
  5. Invisible - too short
    Gamma rays, X rays, and Ultraviolet rays

    Ex: Sun
  6. Visible - just right

    Visible Spectrum
    One particular segment of electromagnetic energy that we can see because these waves are the right length to stimulate receptors in the eye
  7. Invisible - too long
    Radio and television
  8. Structure and Function
    • Eyes perform two separate process.
    • 1st) eyes gather and focus light waves into a precise area at the back of your eyes.
    • 2nd) area absorbs and transforms light waves into impulses, a process known as transduction
  9. Image reversed
    back of the eye the image is upside down. Somehow the brain turns the image rightside up
  10. Light Waves
    The problem with light waves is that after they strike an object, they are reflected back in a broad beam
  11. Cornea
    Rounded, transparent covering over the front of your eye
  12. Pupil
    round opening at the front of your eye that allows light waves to pass into the eye's interior
  13. Iris
    Circular muscle that surrounds the pupil and controls the amount of light entering the eye
  14. Lens
    Transparent, oval structure whose curved surface bends and focuses light waves into an een narrower beam
  15. Retina
    • located in the very back of the eyeball. Is a thin film that contains cells that are extremely sensitive to light.
    • Lightsensitive cells, called photorecptors, begin the process of transduction by absorbing light waves
  16. 3 layers of the retina
    back layer contains two kinds of photoreceptors that begin the process of transduction, changing light waves into electrical signals. One kind of photorecptor with a rodlike shpae is called a rod and is located primarily in the periphery of the retina. The other photoreceptor with a conelike shape is called a cone and is located primarily in the center of the retina in an area called the fovea
  17. Rods
    photorecptors that contain a single chemical, called rhodopsin which activated by small amounts of light. Extremely light sensitie, allow us to see in dim light, only see black, white, and shades of gray
  18. Cones
    photoreceptors that contain three chemicals called opsins which are activated in bright light and allow us to see color. Cones are wired individually to neighboring cells. allow us to see fine details.
  19. Optic nerve
    • Nerve impulses flow through the optic nerve as it exits from the back of the eye. Exit point create a blind spot
    • The optic nerves partially cross over and make a major stop in the Thalamus, which does some initial processing. The thalamus relays the impulses to the back of the occipital lobe in the right and left hemispheres.
  20. Primary Visual Cortex
    Back of each occipitl lobe lies a primary visual cortex, which transforms nerves impulses into simple visual sensation, such as texture, lines, and colors.
  21. Associaton
    primary visual cortex sends simple isual sensations to neighboring assocations areas, which add meaning.
  22. Visual agnosia
    • Part of your visual association area were damaged.
    • Is difficulty in assembling simple visual sensation into more complex, meaningful images
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