TV Studio Production Exam 1

  1. Angle
    The particular approach to a story—its central theme.
  2. medium requirements
    All personnel, equipment, and facilities needed for a production, as well as budgets, schedules, and the various production phases.
  3. field production
    Production activities that take place away from the studio.
  4. multicamera production
    The use of two or more cameras to capture a scene simultaneously from different points of view. Each camera’s output can be recorded sepa- rately (iso configuration) and/or fed into a switcher for instantaneous editing.
  5. postproduction
    Any production activity that occurs after the production. Usually refers to video editing and/or audio sweetening.
  6. preproduction
    The preparation of all production details.
  7. process message
    The message actually perceived by the viewer in the process of watching a video program.
  8. production
    The actual activities in which an event is recorded and/or televised.
  9. production model
    Moving from the idea to the program objective and then backing up to the specific medium requirements to achieve the program objective.
  10. program objective
    The desired effect of the program on the viewer.
  11. single-camera production
    All the video is captured by a single camera or camcorder for postproduction editing. Similar to the traditional film approach. Also called film-style.
  12. studio production
    Production activities that take place in the studio
  13. media convergence
    The media convergence concerns the overlapping functions of digital cinema and video production and of studio and field production. Multicamera productions are sometimes instantaneously edited through switching and sometimes recorded as iso sources for postproduction. Single-camera productions usually resemble film production in shotacquisition and postproduction editing.
  14. EFP team
    Usually a three-person team consisting of the talent, a camcorder operator, and a utility person who handles lighting, audio, and/or video recording, and, if necessary, the microwave transmission back to the studio.
  15. Production schedule
    A calendar that shows the preproduction, production, and postproduction dates and who is doing what, when, and where. See also time line.
  16. nontechnical production personnel
    People concerned primarily with nontechnical production matters that lead from the basic idea to the final screen image. In- cludes producers, directors, and talent.
  17. production team
    Comprises a variety of nontechnical and technical people, such as producer and various assistants (associate producer and production assistant), director and assistant director, and talent and production crew. In charge: director.
  18. postproduction team
    Normally consists of the director, a video editor, and, for complex productions, a sound designer who remixes the sound track.
  19. technical production personnel
    People who operate the production equipment, including camera operators, floor persons, and video and audio engineers.
  20. preproduction team
    Comprises the people who plan the production. Normally includes the producer, writer, director, art director, and technical director. Large productions may include a composer and a choreographer. In charge: producer.
  21. time line
    a breakdown of timeblocks for various activities on actual production day, such as crew call, set up and camera rehearsal
  22. aperature
    Iris opening of a lens; usually measured in ƒ-stops.
  23. beam splitter
    Optical device within the camera that splits the white light into the three additive primary light colors: red, green, and blue.
  24. camcorder
    a portable camera with a video recorder built into it
  25. camera chain
    The camera and the associated electronic equipment, consisting of the power supply, sync generator, and camera control unit.
  26. camera control unit (CCU)
    Equipment, separate from the actual camera, that allows the video operator to adjust the color and brightness balance before and during the production.
  27. charge coupled device (CCD)
    A solid-state imaging device that translates the optical image into a video signal. Also called chip.
  28. chrominance channel
    Contains the RGB video signals or some combination thereof. Also called color, or C, channel.
  29. ENG/EFP camera
    Highly portable, high-end self-contained camera for electronic field production.
  30. fast lens
    A lens that permits a relatively great amount of light to pass through at its largest aperture (lowest ƒ-stop number). Can be used in low-light conditions.
  31. focal length
    With the lens set at infinity, the distance from the iris to the plane where the picture is in focus. Normally measured in millimeters or inches.
  32. f-stop
    Thescaleonthelens,indicatingtheaperture. The larger the ƒ-stop number, the smaller the aperture; the smaller the ƒ-stop number, the larger the aperture.
  33. iris
    Adjustable lens-opening mechanism. Also called lens diaphragm.
  34. luminance channel
    Contains the black-and-white part of a video signal. It is mainly responsible for the sharpness of the picture. Also called luma, or Y, channel.
  35. slow lens
    A lens that permits a relatively small amount of light to pass through (relatively high ƒ-stop number at its largest aperture). Requires higher light levels for optimal pictures.
  36. viewfinder
    A small video screen or flat-panel display on a camera that shows the black-and-white or color picture the camera generates. The flat-panel displays are also called monitors.
  37. zoom lens
    Variable-focal-length lens. All video cameras are equipped with a zoom lens.
  38. zoom range
    How much the focal length can be changed from a wide shot to a close-up during a zoom. The zoom range is stated as a ratio, such as 20:1. Also called zoom ratio.
  39. imaging device/sensor
    In a video camera, converts the optical image into electric energy—the video signal. Also called pickup device or sensor.
  40. arc
    To move the camera in a slightly curved dolly or truck.
  41. calibrate the zoom lens
    First, focus on the farthest point on the z-axis that should be in focus, then zoom out
  42. cant
    To tilt the camera sideways.
  43. crane
    To move the boom of the camera crane up or down. Also called boom.
  44. dolly
    To move the camera toward (dolly in) or away from (dolly out) the object.
  45. jib arm
    A small camera crane that can be operated by the cameraperson.
  46. mounting head
    A device that connects the camera to its support. Also called pan-and-tilt head.
  47. pan
    To turn the camera horizontally.
  48. pedestal
    To move the camera up or down using a studio pedestal.
  49. shutter speed
    A camera control that reduces the blurring of bright, fast-moving objects. The higher the shutter speed, the less blurring occurs but the more light is needed.
  50. studio pedestal
    A heavy camera dolly that permits raising and lowering the camera while on the air.
  51. Steadicam
    A camera mount that allows the operator to walk and run, with the camera remaining steady.
  52. tilt
    To point the camera up or down.
  53. tongue
    To move the boom with the camera from left to right or from right to left.
  54. tripod
    A three-legged camera mount. Also called sticks.
  55. truck
    To move the camera laterally by means of a mobile camera mount. Also called track.
  56. white balance
    The adjustments of the color circuits in the camera to produce white color in lighting of various color temperatures (relative reddishness or bluishness of white light).
  57. zoom
    To change the focal length of the lens through the use of a zoom control while the camera remains stationary.
  58. aspect ratio
    The ratio of the width of the television screen to its height. In STV (standard television), it is 4 × 3 (4 units wide by 3 units high); for HDTV (high-definition television), it is 16 × 9 (16 units wide by 9 units high). Mobile video has various aspect ratios, including vertical ones.
  59. close-up (CU)
    Object or any part of it seen at close range and framed tightly. The close-up can be extreme (extreme or big close-up) or rather loose (medium close-up).
  60. cross-shot (X/S)
    Similar to the over-the-shoulder shot except that the camera-near person is completely out of the shot.
  61. depth of field
    The area in which all objects, located at different distances from the camera, appear in focus. Depends primarily on the focal length of the lens, its ƒ-stop, and the distance from the camera to the object.
  62. field of view
    The portion of a scene visible through a particular lens; its vista. Expressed in symbols, such as CU for close-up.
  63. headroom
    The space between the top of the head and the upper screen edge.
  64. leadroom
    The space in front of a laterally moving object or person.
  65. long shot (LS)
    Object seen from far away or framed very loosely. The extreme long shot shows the object from a great distance. Also called establishing shot.
  66. medium shot (MS)
    Object seen from a medium distance. Covers any framing between a long shot and a close-up.
  67. noseroom
    The space in front of a person looking or pointing toward the edge of the screen.
  68. over-the-shoulder shot (O/S)
    Camera looks over the camera-near person’s shoulder (shoulder and back of head included in shot) at the other person.
  69. psychological closure
    Mentally filling in missing visual information that will lead to a complete and stable configuration. Also called closure.
  70. vector
    A directional screen force.There are graphic, index, and motion vectors.
  71. z-axis
    Indicates screen depth. Extends from camera lens to horizon.
  72. ATR
    audiotape recorder
  73. cardiod
    Heart-shaped pickup pattern of a unidirectional microphone.
  74. condenser mic
    High-quality, sensitive microphone for critical sound pickup.
  75. dynamic mic
    A relatively rugged microphone. Good for outdoor use.
  76. fader
    A volume control that works by sliding a button horizontally along a specific scale. Identical in function to a pot. Also called slide fader.
  77. hypercardiod
    A very narrow unidirectional pickup pattern with a long reach. The mic is also sensitive to sounds coming directly from the back.
  78. jack
    (1) Audio: a socket or receptacle for a connector. (2) Scenery: a brace for a flat.
  79. lavalier
    A small microphone that is clipped to clothing. Also called lav.
  80. mini plug
    Small audio connector.
  81. omnidirectional
    Pickup pattern of a microphone that can hear equally well from all directions.
  82. pick up pattern
    The territory around the microphone within which the mic can hear well.
  83. polar pattern
    The two-dimensional representation of the microphone pickup pattern.
  84. pop filter
    A wire-mesh screen attached to the front of a mic that reduces breath pops and sudden air blasts.
  85. RCA phono plug
    Connector for video and audio equipment.
  86. ribbon mic
    High-quality, highly sensitive microphone for critical sound pickup in the studio, usually for recording string instruments.
  87. sweetening
    The postproduction manipulation of recorded sound
  88. unidirectional
    Pickup pattern of a microphone that can hear best from the front.
  89. VU meter
    Measures volume units, the relative loudness of amplified sound.
  90. waveform
    Graphic representation of a sound that occurs over a period of time.
  91. windscreen
    Acoustic foam rubber that is put over the entire microphone to cut down wind noise
  92. windsock
    A moplike cloth cover that is put over the windscreen to further reduce wind noise in outdoor use. Also called wind jammer.
  93. XLR connector
    Professional three-wire connector for audio cables.
  94. additive primary colors
    Red, green, and blue. Ordinary white light (sunlight) can be separated into the three primary light colors. When these three colored lights are combined in various proportions, all other colors can be reproduced.
  95. attached shadow
    Shadow that is on the object itself. It cannot be seen independent of (detached from) the object.
  96. background light
    Illumination of the set pieces and the backdrop. Also called set light.
  97. back light
    Illumination from behind the subject and opposite the camera; usually a spotlight.
  98. baselight
    Even, nondirectional (diffused) light necessary for the camera to operate optimally. Refers to the overall light intensity.
  99. cast shadow
    Shadow that is produced by an object and thrown (cast) onto another surface. It can be seen independent of the object.
  100. color temperature
    Relative reddishness or bluishness of white light, as measured on the Kelvin (K) scale. The norm for indoor video lighting is 3,200K; for outdoors, 5,600K.
  101. contrast
    The difference between the brightest and the darkest spots in a video image.
  102. diffused light
    Light that illuminates a relatively large area and creates soft shadows.
  103. directional light
    Light that illuminates a relatively small area and creates harsh, clearly defined shadows.
  104. falloff
    The speed (degree) with which a light picture portion turns into shadow areas. Fast falloff means that the light areas turn abruptly into shadow areas and there is a great difference in brightness between light and shadow areas. Slow falloff indicates a very gradual change from light to dark and a minimal brightness difference between light and shadow areas.
  105. fill light
    Additional light on the opposite side of the camera from the key light to illuminate shadow areas and thereby reduce falloff; usually done with floodlights.
  106. floodlight
    A lighting instrument that produces diffused light.
  107. foot-candle (FC)
    The unit of measurement of illumination, or the amount of light that falls on an object. One foot- candle is 1 candlepower of light (1 lumen) that falls on a 1-square-foot area located 1 foot away from the light source. See also lux.
  108. high-key lighting
    Light background and ample light on the scene. Has nothing to do with the vertical positioning of the key light.
  109. incident light
    Light that strikes the object directly from its source. To measure incident light, point the light meter at the camera lens or into the lighting instruments.
  110. key light
    Principal source of illumination; usually a spotlight.
  111. light plot
    A plan, similar to a floor plan, that shows the type, size (wattage), and location of the lighting instruments relative to the scene to be illuminated and the general direction of the light beams.
  112. low-key lighting
    Fast-falloff lighting with dark background and selectively illuminated areas. Has nothing to do with the vertical positioning of the key light.
  113. lux
    European standard unit for measuring light intensity. One lux is 1 lumen (1 candlepower) of light that falls on a surface of 1 square meter located 1 meter away from the light source. 10.75 lux = 1 foot-candle. Most lighting people figure roughly 10 lux = 1 foot-candle. See also foot-candle.
  114. photographic principle
    The triangular arrangement of key, back, and fill lights. Also called triangle, or three- point, lighting.
  115. reflected light
    Light that is bounced off the illuminated object. To measure reflected light, point the light meter close to the object from the direction of the camera.
  116. RGB
    Stands for red, green, and blue—the basic colors of television.
  117. spotlight
    A lighting instrument that produces directional, relatively undiffused light.
  118. triangle light
    The triangular arrangement of key, back, and fill lights. Also called three-point lighting and photo- graphic principle. See photographic principle.
  119. downstream keyer (DSK)
    A control that allows a title to be keyed (cut in) over the picture (line-out signal) as it leaves the switcher.
  120. effects bus
    Row of buttons on the switcher that can select the video sources for a specific effect. Usually the same as a mix bus that has been switched to an effects function.
  121. fader bar
    A lever on the switcher that activates buses and can produce superimpositions, dissolves, fades, keys, and wipes of different speeds.
  122. key bus
    Row of buttons on the switcher used to select the video source to be inserted into the background image.
  123. line-out
    The line that carries the final video or audiooutput.
  124. M/E bus
    Row of buttons on the switcher that can serve mixor effects functions.
  125. mix bus
    Row of buttons on the switcher that permits the mixing of video sources, as in a dissolve or a super.
  126. preview bus
    Row of buttons on the switcher that can direct an input to the preview monitor at the same time another video source is on the air. Also called preset bus.
  127. program bus
    Row of buttons on the switcher, with inputs that are directly switched to the line-out.
  128. switcher
    (1) A panel with rows of buttons that allow the selection and the assembly of multiple video sources through a variety of transition devices as well as the creation of electronic effects. (2) Production person who is doing the switching.
  129. switching
    A change from one video source to another and the creation of various transitions and effects during production with the aid of a switcher. Also called instantaneous editing.
  130. blocking
    Carefully worked-out positioning, movement, and actions by the talent and for all mobile video equipment used in a scene.
  131. camera rehearsal
    Fullrehearsalwithcamerasandother pieces of production equipment. Often identical to the dress rehearsal.
  132. dry run
    Rehearsalwithoutequipment,duringwhichthe basic actions of the talent are worked out. Also called blocking rehearsal.
  133. fact sheet
    Script format that lists the items to be shown on-camera and their main features. May contain sug- gestions of what to say about the product. Also called rundown sheet.
  134. multicamera directing
    Simultaneous coordination of two or more cameras for instantaneous editing (switching).Also called control room directing and live-switched directing.
  135. news script
    Fully scripted text with video information on page-left and news copy on page-right. The copy (spoken text) can also be in a large center column that also contains some additional information.
  136. script
    Written document that tells what the program is about, who says what, what is supposed to happen, and what and how the audience will see and hear the event.
  137. shot
    The smallest convenient operational unit in video and film, usually the interval between two transitions. In cinema it may refer to a specific camera setup.
  138. shot sheet
    A list of every shot a particular camera has to get. It is attached to the camera to help the camera operator remember a shot sequence.
  139. take
    Any one of similar repeated shots taken during video-recording and filming.
  140. trim handles
    Recording additional footage before and after the major shot content for precise editing. Also called pads.
  141. visualization
    The mental image of a shot. May also include the imagining of verbal and nonverbal sounds. Mentally converting a scene into a number of key video images and their sequence.
  142. walk through/camera rehearsal
    A combination of an orientation session for talent and crew and a follow-up rehearsal with full equipment. This combination re- hearsal is generally conducted from the studio floor.
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TV Studio Production Exam 1
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