Pharm respiratory

  1. What limits the release of acetylcholine producing an anticholergenic effect?
  2. Common side effects of histamine
    GI upset, thickening of secretions, and drowsiness
  3. Antihistamines can decrease the effect of
    corticosteroids and hormones
  4. A pt with what might not be able to take antihistamines because of tachycardia
    thyroid disease or migraines
  5. Rebound effect
    an increase in the symptoms you are trying to stop and is caused by long term use of topical nasal antihistamines
  6. Benadryl dose
    25-50 mg po 3 or 4 times daily
  7. Phenergan dose
    25 mg po at bedtime
  8. Zyrtec dose
    5 or 10 mg po daily
  9. Side effects of antihistamines in elderly
    constipation, dry mouth, urinary retention
  10. Pt teaching of antihistamines
    can take with milk of GI upset
  11. Antihistamines act to competitively block the actions of
    histamine by competing with it for receptor sites
  12. Most common adverse effect of antihistamines
  13. The concurrent use of CNS depressants with antihistamines would produce
    increased sedation
  14. How do antitussives work
    1. Act centrally on the cough center in the brain, 2. Act peripherally by anesthetizing stretch receptors in the respiratory tract or 3. Act locally by soothing irritated areas in the throat
  15. Suppress the cough reflex by acting on the cough reflex center in the medulla of the brain
    Narcotic antitussives
  16. Adverse reactions to antitussives
    constipation, dry mouth, nausea, and postural hypotension
  17. Possible contraindicators of antitussives
    COPD, pregnancy
  18. Tessalon Perles
    anesthetizes stretch receptors 100 mg po t.i.d.
  19. Cromolyn sodium helps treat asthma
    By slowing down the destruction of sensitized mast cells
  20. Cromolyn may provide hyposensitization by
    preventing the release of phospholipase
  21. Preventative asthma med
    cromolyn sodium and nedocromil sodium
  22. Cromolyn is more effective in
    children than adults
  23. Asthma is caused by
    deficiency of respiratory enzymes, reaction to allergy, reflex response to cold dry air or hard exercise
  24. Cromolyn is given
  25. On cromolyn, asthma symptoms should improve
    within 4 weeks
  26. With cromolyn, if a pt is using a bronchodilator at the same time,
    it should be used first, then cromolyn
  27. Sympathomietics
    beta-adrenergic agents and they dilate the bronchi through their action on beta-adrenergic dilators; AKA adrenergic stimulants
  28. Xanthines
    act directly to relax the smooth muscle cells of the bronchi
  29. Sympathomietics are used
    for symptoms of bronchospasm occurring in acute and chronic asthma, bronchitis, and emphysemaand relax smooth muscle cells of the bronchi
  30. Thyroid, antidepressants antihistamines and amphetamines can
    increase the effects of sympatomimetics
  31. Lack of response to a drug that a patient has used before with good effectiveness
  32. Types of sympathomietics
  33. Types of bronchodilators
    aminophylline, theophylline
  34. Xanthine actions
    also act of kidneys to produce diuresis and cause CNS effects
  35. Using furosemide and theophylline
    increases the serum level of theophylline and may cause toxicity
  36. What shortens prothrombin time and clotting times
    xanthine derivatives
  37. What affects blood level of theophylline
    level in each product, variance in rate of absorption, metabolism and elimitation of each drug, age of pt
  38. Leukotrine receptor inhibitors
    reduce the symptoms of asthma, act to block bronchospasm receptors for the cysteinyl leukotrines C, D, E; bronchoconstrictors
  39. What drugs do leukotriene receptors interact with?
    Warfarin, erythromycin, theophylline and aspirin
  40. Corticosteroids
    long term asthmatics, block reaction to allergens and reduce airway hyperresponsiveness
  41. Inhaled corticosteroids
    used in long term asthma
  42. Systemic corticosteroids
    used to get quick control of the disease when beginning long term therapy
  43. Example of leukotriene receptor
  44. Example of systemic corticosteroid
  45. Example of inhaled corticosteroid
  46. Asthma symptoms of being hungry, restless and not able to sleep should be attributed to
    a common adverse reaction from her bronchodilators
  47. If someone has wheezing and SOB, what would be prescribed to relieve bronchospasms?
  48. Refractoriness is
    often caused by too-frequent administration of drugs
  49. The major difference in action between sympathomimetics and xanthines is
    Xanthine produces significant CNS effects
  50. The half life of xanthine bronchodilators is influenced by
    whether a pt is a smoker
  51. Monitoring the correct dosage of xanthine products is best accomplished by
    obtaining the blood theophylline level
  52. Corticosteroids are
    used for long term asthma control and they help to reduce airway hyperresponsiveness
  53. Systemic corticosteroids are used primarily for the purpose of
    decreasing the inflammatory activity in the bronchioles
  54. Use of inhaled corticosteroids in asthma is for
    long term control of symptoms
  55. Decongestants directly affect
    alpha receptors of blood vessels in the nasal mucosa causing vasoconstriction; reduces blood flow, fluid movement, and mucosal edema
  56. Decongestants are used to
    relieve nasal congestion that accompanies allergies and URTI
  57. Topical decongestants should be used for
    no longer than 3-5 days
  58. Example of decongestants
  59. Rebound vasodilation refers to
    an increase in blood flow from beta receptor stimulation
  60. Decongestants are used for relief of nasal congestion caused by
    ear infections, URTIs and allergies
  61. When topical decongestants are used, what can occur
    rebound congestion
  62. Decongestants are contraindicated in patients with
    diabetes, hypertension and glaucoma
  63. Expectorants are
    agents that decrease the thickness of respiratory secretions and aid in their removal; increase the amount of fluid in the respiratory tract
  64. Used to treat symptoms of productive cough
  65. Who must be closely monitored if taking guaifensin?
    Pts taking anticoagulants
  66. What does guaifensin do?
    Decreases stickiness
  67. Expectorants should be taken with
    one full glass of water
  68. What expectorants should not be used continuously because it may lead to hypothyroidism?
  69. Main action of topical intranasal steroids
    anti-inflammatory effect which decreases local congestion
  70. Steroids pose a risk in their use because the drug may increase the risk for
  71. What is contraindicated for intranasal steroid use?
    Pregnancy, herpes of the eye, infections of the sinus tract
  72. 3 major respiratory classes
    upper respiratory, bronchodilators, antihistamines
  73. Upper respiratory agents
    antitussives, decongestants, expectorants, mucolytics
  74. Bronchodilators
    inhaled corticosteroids, b-agonists, leukotriene antagonists, xanthines, anticholinergics
  75. What antihistamine is nonsedating?
  76. What is the therapeutic level of theophylline
    10-20 mcg/ml
Card Set
Pharm respiratory
Pharm respiratory