Psych 111 Exam 2 - Ch7

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  1. What is memory?
    the nervous systems’ capacity to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge
  2. Who is HM and why is he important?
    HM suffered from severe epilepsy

    had surgery where doctor removed parts of his medial temporal lobes, including the hippocampus

    HM lost the ability to form new long-term memories

    he lost every new memory he acquired through conversation, before that new memory could be transformed into a long-term memory

    he was able to remember motor tasks

    Did not remember performing new tasks, but made less errors as tasks were repeated
  3. Modal Memory Model:
    1) sensory memory- unattended information is lost 2) short-term memory-unrehearsed information is lost 3)-Long-term memory- some information may be lost overtime
  4. How is memory adaptive and why do we miss things in our surrounding?

    Change Blindness
    common failure to notice large changes in environments

    ex. old man giving directions to another man, but then mid conversation, the man is switched with another because of a momentary blockage by a larger object
  5. What are the stages of memory?
    • Encoding
    • Storage
    • Retrieval
  6. What are the stages of memory?

    processing of information so that it can be stored
  7. What are the stages of memory?

    retention of encoded representations over time that corresponds to some change in the nervous system that registers the event
  8. What are the stages of memory?

    the act of recalling or remembering stored info to use it
  9. Sensory Memory
  10. Sensory Memory: Iconic Memory

    George Sperling’s classic experiment
  11. Sensory Memory: Iconic Memory: George Sperling’s classic experiment

    Method used:
    three rows of letters were flashed on a screen for one-twentieth of a second

    particpants were asked to recall all the letters

    used high, medium or low pitched sounds to accompany a single row of letters

    when sound occured very shortly after the letters disappeared, the participants correctly remembered almost all the letters in the single row
  12. Sensory Memory: Iconic Memory: George Sperling’s classic experiment

    visual memory persisted about one-third of a second, after which the sensory memory trace faded progressively until it was no longer accessible

    longer the delay between the letters’ disappearance and the sound, the worse the participants performed
  13. Sensory Memory: Echoic memory
    very brief sensory memory of some auditory stimuli.

    Typically, echoic memories are stored for slightly longer periods of time than iconic memories (visual memories)
  14. Short Term Memory (STM)/Working Memory (WM)
    • short-term memory
    • -limited capacity memory system that holds information in awareness for a brief period

    • working memory
    • -active processing system that keeps different types of info available for current use
    • -immediate memory
  15. Short Term Memory (STM)/Working Memory (WM)

    Memory Span:
    brief, fleeting thoughts
  16. “Chunking”
    organizing info into meaningful units to make it easier to remember
  17. Long Term Memory (LTM)
    relatively permanent storage of infolonger duration, and nearly limitless capacity
  18. Differences between LTM and STM
    LTM has a longer duration, and nearly limitless capacity
  19. What is serial position effect?
    ability to recall items from a list depending on order. first and last are remembered better than in the middle
  20. What is serial position effect?

    Primacy effect
    better memory people have for remembering the beginning better
  21. What is serial position effect?

    Recency effect
    better memory people have for remembering the most recent better
  22. What makes it into LTM?

    distributed practice
  23. What makes it into LTM?

  24. What makes it into LTM?

    Distributed practice
    spaced out over multiple periods of time
  25. What makes it into LTM?

    Massed practice or “cramming”
  26. What makes it into LTM?

    Most effective way to study
    distributed practice using associations
  27. LTM 7 Memory Systems
    • Explicit memory
    • Declarative memory
    • Episodic memory
    • Semantic memory
    • Implicit memory
    • Procedural memory
    • Prospective memory
  28. LTM Memory Systems

    Explicit memory
    process involved when remembering specific info
  29. LTM Memory Systems

    Declarative memory
    cognitive info retried from explicit memory

    can be declared
  30. LTM Memory Systems

    Episodic memory
    memory for one’s personal past experiences
  31. LTM Memory Systems

    Semantic memory
    memory for knowledge about the world
  32. LTM Memory Systems

    Implicit memory
    underlying unconscious memories
  33. LTM Memory Systems

    Procedural memory
    motor skills and behavioral habits
  34. LTM Memory Systems

    Prospective memory
    remembering to do something in the future
  35. Schemas
    hypothetical cognitive structure

    -helps us perceive, organize, process, and use info
  36. What is a retrieval cue?
    anything that helps a person (or other animal) recall info from memory
  37. What is the encoding specificity principle?
    any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience can later trigger memory for the experience

    ex. underwater and above water memory test
  38. Consolidation
    transfer of contents from immediate memory into long-term memory
  39. Reconsolidation
    when memories are recalled and then stored again for later retrieval
  40. Why is spatial memory important?
    it is memory of the physical environment

    such as location of objects, direction, and cognitive maps
  41. What is forgetting?
    inability to retrieve memory from long-term storage
  42. Blocking:
    (a type of forgetting) inability to remember needed information, such as failing to recall the name of a person you meet on the streets
  43. Anterograde amnesia and Retrograde amnesia
    • Anterograde amnesia:
    • -inability to form new memories

    • Retrograde amnesia:
    • -condition in which people lose past memories, such as memories for events, facts, people, or even personal info
  44. Memory Distortions
    Flashbulb memories

    Source misattribution

    False memories
  45. Memory Distortions

    Flashbulb Memories
    Memories that are associated with powerful emotions (example world trade center/ 9-11) They are deeply held memories, but the details are often inaccurate.
  46. Memory Distortions

    Source Misattributions
    memory distortion that occurs when people misremember the time, place, person, or circumstances involved with a memory
  47. Memory Distortions

    False Memories

    false recollection of episodic memory
Card Set
Psych 111 Exam 2 - Ch7
Chapter 7
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