442 exam 2

  1. Phonology
    the description of the systems and patterns of phonemes that occur in a language
  2. Phoneme
    the smallest unit that has a contrasting function within words is the phoneme
  3. What is the central unit in phonology?
    the phoneme
  4. The phonetic level
    sounds (phonemes and allophones are the central unit)
  5. The phonemic level
    phonemes are central to the phonemic level
  6. Phonemic inventory
    • the list of sounds available for use as phonemes within a language
    • 2 languages can have the same phonemic inventory potentially, but have different phonologies (the two languages may have different phonotactic constraints; different rules for combining those phonemes)
  7. Distinctive features
    any property that separates a subset of elements from a group
  8. How do you describe a sound according to its distinctive features?
    • using a binary system
    • describes a sound according to the distinctive features that are present (+) or absent (-)
  9. What are Chomsky and Hall's features?
    • sonorant
    • consonantal
    • vocalic
    • coronal
    • anterior distributed
    • nasal
    • lateral
    • high
    • low
    • back
    • round
    • continuant
    • delayed release
    • tense
    • heightened subglottal pressure
    • voiced
    • strident
  10. Sonorant
    • open tract that promotes voicing
    • vowels, glides, nasals, and liquids
  11. Consonantal
    • sounds produced with a high degree of obstruction
    • stops, fricatives, affricates, liquids, and nasals
  12. Vocalic
    • sounds produced with a low degree of oral obstruction
    • vowels and liquids
  13. Coronal
    • sounds produced with the apical/predorsal portion of the tongue
    • includes sounds such as [d], [t], [n] and [l]
  14. Anterior
    • sounds produced in the frontal region of the oral cavity (alveolar ridge is the posterior border)
    • includes sounds such as [m], [n], [p], [b], [t], [d]
  15. Distributed
    • sounds with a relatively long oral-sagittal constriction (running front to back)
    • [esh], [s], [z] are examples
    • not on chart
  16. Nasal
    • sounds produced with an open nasal passageway
    • includes [m], [n], and [eng]
  17. Lateral
    • sounds produced with a lower lateral rims portion of the tongue
    • [l]
  18. High
    • sounds produced with a high tongue position (can be vowels as well as consonants)
    • think of vowel quadrilateral; also sounds like [k]
  19. Low
    • vowels produced with a low tongue position
    • example: [script a]
    • only consonants that fit: [glottal stop] and [h]
  20. Back
    • vowels and consonants produced with a retracted body of the tongue
    • back vowels and velar or pharyngeal consonants
    • [w] is back because your tongue is bunched up in the back
  21. Round
    • refers to rounding of the lips
    • [u] and [w]
    • [esh] is not included in the system
  22. Continuant
    • incessant sounds produced without any hindering of the airstream within the oral cavity
    • includes fricatives, glides, and liquids
    • stops, nasals, and affricates are minus-continuant
  23. Delayed release
    refers to the affricates
  24. Tense
    • consonants and vowels produced with relatively greater articulatory effort
    • think of vowel "pairs" on the quadrilateral; tense/lax pairs
    • for consonants: [p] is tense and [b] is not
  25. Heightened subglottal pressure
    • aspirated stops would fall into this category because of the added airflow that occurs with aspiration
    • includes [p], [t], [k]
  26. Voiced
    • produced with simultaneous vocal fold vibration
    • usually only talk about consonants here because all vowels are voiced
  27. Strident
    refers to all of the affricates and fricatives in English (except [theta] and [eth])
  28. Naturalness
    • relative simplicity of sound production
    • high frequency of occurrence in languages
    • so, natural sounds are easy to produce and occur in many languages (example: /p/)
  29. Markedness
    • relatively more difficult to produce
    • found less frequently in languages
    • example: /t-esh/
  30. What are distinctive feature theories used for?
    • originally developed to analyze the phonemes in languages
    • later, used to analyze disordered speech (could compare the error productions to the norm, and compare the distinctive features that were different and/or the same)
  31. Problems with using distinctive features
    • they are a bit abstract
    • can't classify some differences in production with distinctive features (no dentalized s, so clinician can not mark the difference or mark it as a theta, neither of which is accurate)
  32. Generative phonology
    • built upon concept of distinctive features
    • underlying form is important (this is a theoretical concept that represents a mental reality behind the way people use language)
  33. What are the 2 levels of sound representation in generative phonology?
    • phonological representation
    • phonetic representation (the modified surface form)
    • phonological rules explain the differences between phonological (linguistic) and phonetic (production) representations
  34. What is a phonological rule?
    • A) a formal expression of a regularity that occurs in the phonology of a language or B) in the phonology of a given speaker
    • can be context free (always happens, no matter what the context), or context sensitive (happens in some contexts)
  35. What is the phonological rule notation for 'A becomes B'?
    A -> B
  36. What is the phonological rule notation of 'in the context of'?
  37. What is the phonological rule notation of 'location of the change'?
  38. What is the phonological rule notation for 'word initially'?
  39. What is the phonological rule notation for 'word finally'?
  40. What is the phonological rule notation for 'intervocalically'?
  41. *Theoretical considerations slide 36
  42. Are voiceless or voiced obstruents more natural (easier to produce)?
  43. Are obstruents or sonorants more natural?
  44. Are stops or fricatives more natural?
  45. Obstruents
    • stops, affricates, and fricatives
    • impedance in airflow
  46. Sonorants
    • glides, liquids, and nasals
    • louder than sounds around them
  47. Are fricatives or affricates more natural?
  48. Which are the most natural vowels?
    low front
  49. Are close-tense or open-lax vowels more natural?
  50. Are anterior or non-anterior consonants more natural?
  51. Are consonants with or without secondary articulation more natural?
    • without
    • secondary articulation would be something like lip rounding
  52. Natural phonology
    • says that patterns of speech are governed by an innate, universal set of phonological processes
    • was designed to explain the development of the child's phonological system
  53. According to natural phonology, a phonological process is:
    a mental operation that applies in speech to substitute a class of sounds or sound sequences presenting a common difficulty to the speech capacity of the individual
  54. Limitation
    • a child initially applies a phonological rule globally (to a large class of sounds). as the child matures, he/she limits this rule to a smaller group of sounds or sound
    • example: initially all fricatives go to stops. later, this may only happen with sibilant fricatives
  55. Ordering
    • substitutions that were random become more organized
    • example: child stops fricatives and initially also devoices some of the fricatives. later, more organization and voiced stops replace voiced fricatives and voiceless stops replace voiceless fricatives
  56. Suppression
    elimination of phonological processes as the child moves toward the adult norm production
  57. Syllable structure processes
    • phonological processes that affect more than just a phoneme
    • includes cluster reduction, reduplication, weak syllable deletion, and final consonant deletion
  58. Cluster reduction
    • clusters go to a single consonant, typically the more "natural" member
    • up to a 3-letter cluster in english (str)
  59. Reduplication
    • the syllable structure is "simplified"; the second syllable becomes a reduplication of the first
    • "baba" for bottle
  60. Weak syllable deletion
    • the omission of an unstressed syllable
    • "nana" for banana
  61. Final consonant deletion
    • omission of the syllable-arresting consonant (last consonant of the syllable)
    • "bi" for bike
  62. Substitution processes
    • phonological processes
    • consonant cluster substitution
  63. Consonant cluster substitution
    • replacement of one member of a cluster
    • [stwit] for street (substituting for 'r' instead of losing it altogether)
  64. Changes in organ or place of articulation
    • phonological processes
    • includes fronting, labialization, and alveolarization
  65. Fronting
    • replacing a more posterior sound with a more anterior sound
    • often see velar fronting (t/k and d/g)
  66. Labialization
    • the replacement of a nonlabial sound by a labial one
    • 'fum' for thumb
  67. Alveolarization
    • changing sounds that aren't produced on alveolar ridge to alveolar sounds
    • usually occurs for interdenal and labiodental sounds
    • 'sum' for thumb
  68. Changes in manner of articulation
    • phonological processes
    • include stopping, affrication, deaffrication, denasalization, gliding of liquids, vowelization, and derhotacization
  69. Stopping
    • substituting stops for fricatives, or omission of the fricative portion of affricates
    • 'tun' for sun, or 'dus' for juice
    • when fricatives are stopped, they generally go to the homorganic stop- same or closest place
  70. Affrication
    • replacing a fricative with an affricate
    • 'chew' for shoe
  71. Deaffrication
    • replacing an affricate with a fricative
    • 'shiz' for cheese
  72. Denasalization
    • replacing a nasal with a homorganic stop
    • 'dud' for moon
  73. Gliding of liquids
    • 'white' for light
    • 'wed' for red
  74. Vowelization
    • replacing syllabic consonants with vowels
    • so would be replacing [l], [n], and schwar
    • 'tabo' for table
  75. Derhotacization
    • loss of r-coloring (both for consonantal /r/ and central vowels with r-coloring)
    • 'motha' for mother
  76. Changes in voicing
    • phonological processes
    • includes voicing and devoicing
  77. Voicing
    replacing a voiceless sound with a voiced one
  78. Devoicing
    replacing a voiced sound with a voiceless one
  79. Assimilatory processes (or harmony processes)
    • phonological processes
    • includes labial assimilation, velar assimilation, nasal assimilation, and liquid assimilation
  80. Labial assimilation
    • a non-labial sound becomes a labial sound because of influence of a neighboring sound
    • 'fwing' for swing
  81. Velar assimilation
    • a sound that is not velar becomes velar because of the influence of another velar sound
    • 'gog' for dog
  82. Nasal assimilation
    • a non-nasal sound becomes nasal
    • 'muni' for bunny
  83. Liquid assimilation
    'lelo' for yellow
  84. Persisting normal processes
    children with phonological disorders use phonological processes past the age when most children do (delay)
  85. Chronological mismatch
    see presence of earlier processes (that are typically "suppressed" by the child's age) in children with phonological disorders, along with suppression of later stage phonological processes
  86. Systematic sound preference (collapse of phonemic contrast)
    in children with phonological disorders, a single phonetic realization is used for several different phonemes
  87. Unusual or idiosyncratic patterns
    in children with phonological disorders, patterns that are not commonly seen in typically developing children
  88. Variable use of processes
    • in children with phonological disorders, can be:
    • a process occurs on one target sound, but not on that sound in another context
    • different processes operating on the same target phoneme, depending on the context
  89. Why do kids with processes that should have been suppressed earlier, have a better prognosis than kids who have idiosyncratic processes?
    kids who have processes that are not suppressed are doing things that typical kids do, but just doing them for longer periods of time. kids with idiosyncratic patterns are doing something odd/different = worse prognosis
  90. Linear phonology
    • emphasizes the sequential (linear) arrangement of sound segments
    • all phonological rules apply to the segmental level (as opposed to the suprasegmental level)
    • all sound segments have equal value; no sound segment has control over other units
  91. Non-linear phonology
    • a group of phonological theories that says the segmental level is governed by more complex dimensions
    • incorporates suprasegmental features as controlling the segmental level (stress, intonation, syllable structure, etc)
  92. Autosegmental phonology
    • non-linear phonology
    • has a tiered representation (tiers are somewhat independent from one another)
    • tries to account for changes within the segment boundary (affricates are both -continuant and +continuant)
  93. Onset
    all segments before the nucleus
  94. Rhyme
    nucleus + coda
  95. Metrical phonology
    • non-linear theory
    • tiered/hierarchical system for representing what happens in a child's output
    • is a way to tier out or account for stress
    • (linear phonology doesn't look at stress)
  96. How is an infant's respiration different from an adult's?
    • have enough air pressure against the glottis (subglottal pressure) to phonate (evidenced by crying behavior)
    • lungs are proportionately large for body
    • at 7 years of age, respiratory patterns are similar to that of an adult (meaning inspiration vs. expiration, breathing rates, etc)
  97. How is an infant's phonation different from an adult's?
    • early on, the larynx serves mainly primary function (protects the airway)
    • even early one, is certainly responsible for making sounds (crying)
    • it isn't until later that the larynx is a part of actual speech production
  98. How does the larynx change from infancy to adulthood?
    • newborns have arytenoid cartilages that are proportionately large when compared to adults
    • vocal processes of these arytenoids (where vocal folds attach) are also large. they invade the glottis (space between the folds) and make it more difficult for them to vibrate
  99. How is an infant's articulation different from an adult's?
    • in a newborn, the tongue fills the oral cavity
    • around 1st birthday, see changes that facilitate articulation (enlargement of the skull helps to make more room in the oral area; so the tongue no longer fills the mouth. the tongue and lips are elongated and have more mobility)
  100. How is an infant's resonation different from an adult's?
    around 1st year, enlargement of the skull means the velum has more room, and so more mobility
  101. What is an infant's oral/pharyngeal/laryngeal area initially set up for?
    • to primarily serve feeding
    • later, evolves into shape/structure conducive to speech production
  102. Prelinguistic stage
    stage before the first real words
  103. Perception/discrimination
    • prelinguistic stage
    • up until 6-8 months, infant discrimated between phonemes of languages to which they had NOT been exposed
    • by 10-12 months, this discrimination ability was no longer present (this ability is not present in adults either)
  104. Auditory comprehension
    • prelinguistic stage
    • develops earlier than speech production
    • some word comprehension is present between 7-9 months
  105. Stage 1: reflexive crying and vegetative sounds
    • prelinguistic speech stage
    • birth-2 months
    • characterized by reflexive vocalizations (cries, coughs, grunts that reflect physical state of the baby)
    • also characterized by vegetative sounds (clicks, grunts, etc, associated with feeding)
  106. Stage 2: cooing and laughter
    • prelinguistic speech stage
    • 2-4 months
    • babies coo during comfort states
    • usually vowel sounds, but may contain some back consonants
    • at 16 weeks sustained laughter
  107. Stage 3: vocal play
    • prelinguistic speech stage
    • 4-6 months
    • hear extreme variations in loudness and pitch
    • vowels have more variety than in stage 2
  108. Stage 4: canonical babbling
    • begins at around 6 months and continues on through the time of the first words
    • includes reduplicated and non-reduplicated babbling
  109. Reduplicated babbling
    repeated or similar strings of consonant vowel combinations (bababa)
  110. Non-reduplicated babbling
    variation of both vowels or consonants (bati)
  111. Stage 5: jargon stage
    • prelinguistic speech stage
    • 10 months and older
    • this is a stage where babbling overlaps with the first meaningful words
  112. Jargon
    strings of babbled utterances that have pitch changes, pausing, etc., so that it sounds like the infant is trying to talk (even if the contents are nonsensical)
  113. Vocoids
    • productions that are not yet true vowels of a language (vowel-like sounds that are not being used in a meaning differentiated way) (because child is young enough that phoneme realization is not yet in place)
    • occur at the end of the canonical babbling stage
    • at 13-14 months see predominance of these vocoids: [epsilon], [small cap i], and [inverted v]
  114. Contoids
    • productions that are not true consonants of a language
    • occur at the end of the canonical babbling stage
    • most frequent ones are [h], [d], [b], [m], [t], [g], and [w]
  115. Syllable shapes
    • during later babbling stages, mostly see open syllables
    • examples: V, CV, VCV, CVCV
    • may see some closed syllables, but it is limited
  116. Do children with more contoid or vocoid babble have more language growth?
  117. Prosodic feature development during the prelinguistic stage
    • larger linguistic elements that occur across segments
    • examples: pitch, loudness, tempo variations, etc
  118. First fifty word stage ("linguistic stage")
    • for most kids, this begins around the 1st birthday
    • continues on until the child begins to put 2 words together (at around 18-24 months)
    • called fifty 1st word stage because kids usually have 50 words before they begin combining 2 words
  119. What is the first word?
    a relatively stable phonetic form that is produced consistently in a particular context, and is recognizably related to the adult-like form of the adult production ("ba" would count as a word for "ball")
  120. Phonological/language development ("pre-systematic stage" or item learning")
    • part of the first 50 word stage
    • seem to be learning sounds as well as sets of sounds that make up words (learning contrastive words, rather than contrastive phones)
    • at this stage, are learning words as whole units, not as groups of phonemes put together contrastively to form meaning
  121. Holophrastic period
    • first part of the item learning stage
    • refers to time when child uses one word for a whole idea
    • also, child doesn't have a firm link between object and meaning, and sound segments that make up words are not firmly established
  122. Segmental form development
    • part of first 50 word stage
    • many (but not all) children have unstable productions during the first 50 words (called phonetic variability)
  123. Limited syllable structures of first 50 word stage
    • these types predominate: CV, VC, CVC
    • may see CVCV words, but are usually full or partial reduplicates
  124. Consonant inventories
    • part of first 50 word stage
    • much variability in research
    • can loosely generalize: voiced labial stops and nasals, also [h] and [w], so [b], [m] usually see in first words of kids, like first words "bottle", "mama", "dada"
  125. Vowel inventories
    • part of first 50 word stage
    • usually [script a] first, then [i] and [u]
  126. Was a larger inventory of sounds of first 50 word stage found in word initial or word final position?
    • word initial
    • contained voiced stops prior to voiceless; word final inventories contained voiceless stops before voiced ones
    • [r] nearly always appeared first in word final position
  127. Salience factor
    • part of first 50 word stage
    • a child's active selection in early word productions, of words containing sounds that are remarkable or important to the child (so child would tend to produce words that contain sounds that are in their phonologic inventories)
  128. Avoidance factor
    • part of first 50 word stage
    • avoidance of words that do not contain sounds within a child's phonologic inventory
  129. Prosodic feature development
    • part of first 50 word stage
    • prosodic variation- use pitch within words to indicate differences in meaning (da da = this is daddy, da da = is that daddy outside)
  130. Preschool child
    • covers time period from the end of first 50 word stage (18-24 months) until beginning of 6th year
    • largest phonological growth occurs
    • time when we see most kids with artic/phonological disorders
  131. Changes in language during preschool age
    • jump from one to two word utterances (and then beyond)
    • vocabulary begins to "take off"
    • at age 5, expressive vocabulary at around 2,200 words
    • at age 5, receptive vocabulary at around 9,600 words
    • by age 5, "almost complete" phonoogical system is in place
  132. Preschool child cross sectional studies
    • segmental form development
    • any time we look at charts that describe acquisition ages for different vowels and consonants, we see a lot of variability
    • depends on criterion set by the study (did they require 70% or 90% accuracy in production?)
  133. What generalizations can be made from cross sectional studies?
    • nasals, stops, and glides acquired relatively early
    • fricatives and affricates acquired relatively late
    • consonant cluster acquired relatively late (2 consonant clusters precede 3 consonant clusters)
Card Set
442 exam 2
speech disorders