1. Heart Dilatation
    Abnormal increase in size of chambers
  2. Dilatation causes
    Vascular disease or hypertension
  3. Hypertrophy
    Thickened myocardium
  4. Hypertrophy causes
    Secondary to hypertension
  5. Endocarditis
    • Inflammation of lining membrane
    • Usually confined to extermal lining of heart valve, sometimes lining membrame of chambers
    • Invasion of microorgansims or abnormal immunological reaction
  6. Endocarditis post mortem conditions
    • Vascular obstruction
    • Multiple abscesses
  7. Vascular defects
    • Acquired diseases; congenital anomalies; combination
    • Valvular insufficiency
    • Stenosis
  8. Valvular insufficiency (incompetence)
    Mitral valve proplase - floppy mitral valve - valve leaflets enlarge and prolapse into left atrium during heart contraction
  9. Stenosis
    Degenerative calcific aortic valve stenosis, age-related hardening and narrowing of aortic valve
  10. Pericarditis
    Inflammation of pericardium (heart sac) secondary to diseases of adjacent structures or systemic diseases
  11. Myocarditis
    Myocardial inflammation with myocyte necrosis or degeneration
  12. Myocarditis causes
    Microbiologic agents; immunimediated injury; reaction to physical agents (heat stroke, radiation)
  13. Myocarditis consequences
    • Arrhythmia
    • Congestive heart failure
    • Sudden death
    • Complete recovery
  14. Rehumatic heart disease
    Acute, recurrent inflammatory disease mainly of children (5-15)
  15. Rheumatic heart disease causes
    • 1-5 weeks after group A streptococcal infection (soar throat)
    • Autoimmune response to infection with destruction of heart valve
  16. Rheumatic heart disease Lesions
    Mitral valve stenosis; aortic valve stenosis resulting in congestive heart failure and ventricular hypertrophy
  17. Coronary heart disease (ischemic heart disease)
    • Imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand caused by three types of derangements
    • Reduced coronary blood flow
    • Increased myocardial demand
    • Diminished oxygen transport
  18. Causes reduced coronary blood flow
    • Atheroclerosis
    • Thrombosis
    • Spasms
  19. Atheroclerosis
    Hardening of arteries by cholesterol plaque along arterial wall causing narrowing of vessel lumen
  20. Thrombosis
    Blood clot occluding blood flow
  21. Spasms
    Intermittent contraction and relaxation of coronary artery diminishing blood flow
  22. Cardiac failure
    • Pathophysiologic state where cardiac output is insufficient to satisfy body's needs - low arterial flow and/or venous stasis
    • Acute or Chronic
  23. Chronic
  24. Myocardial infarction
    Partial or complete occlusion of one or more coronary arteries
  25. Symptoms of Myocardial infarction
    • Prolonged heavy pressure or squeezing pain in center of chest behind sternum
    • Pain may spread or by localized to shoulder, neck, arm, and fourth fingers of left hand; to back, to teeth, or jaw
    • Accompanied by nausea and vomiting, sweating, shortness of breath
  26. Blood vessels
    • Arteritis
    • Arteriosclerosis
    • Atherosclerosis
    • Aneurysm
    • Phlebitis
    • Varicose veins
  27. Arteritis
    Vasculitis due to direct injury (infection, trauma, toxins) or systemic (multifocal necrosis and thrombosis)
  28. Arteriosclerosis
    • Slowly progressice disease of large to medium-sized muscular arteries and large elastic arteries
    • Elevated focal internal fibrofatty plaques (abdominal aorta, coronary arteries)
  29. Aneurysm
    Localized abnormal dilatation of vessels
  30. Types of Aneurysms
    • Berry
    • Saccular
    • Fusiform
    • Dissecting
  31. Aneurysm Complications
    • Rupture
    • Impingement on adjacent structure
    • Occulsion of vessel
    • Embolism from mural (wall) thrombosis
  32. Phlebitis
    • Inflammation of vein walls
    • Associated with blood clot (thrombophlebitis)
  33. Varicose Veins
    Abnormal tortuous dilatation of superficial veins of extremities, typically lower extremities resulting from chronic increased intraluminal pressure (associated with pregnancy, obesity, compressive tumor masses)
  34. Heart diseases
    • Dilatation
    • Hypertrophy
    • Endocarditis
    • Valvular defects
    • Pericarditis
    • Myocarditis
    • Rheumatic heart disease
    • Coronary heart disease
    • Cardiac failure
    • Myocardial infarction
  35. Mouth diseases
    • Stomatitis
    • Glossitis
    • Gingivitis
  36. Stomatitis
    • Inflammation or ulceration of mouth
    • Mouth ulcers, cold sore; candidiosis (thrush)
  37. Glossitis
    • Inflammation of tongue
    • Associated with iron deficiency anemia, pernicious anemia, and infection
  38. Gingivitis
    • Inflammation of gingiva (gums)
    • Due to infection; usually reversible
  39. Pharynx diseases
  40. Pharyngitis
    • Inflammation of pharynx
    • Due to infection or swelling of caustic or hot substances
  41. Esophagus diseases
  42. Esophagitis
    • Predisposing conditions causing reflux or gastric contents
    • Includes exposure to irritants (alcohol, hot fluids; bacterial, viral or fungal infections; radiation/drugs)
  43. Stomach diseases
    • Gastritis
    • Stomach ulcer
  44. Gastritis
    Inflammation of mucosal membrane of stomach by drugs or alcohol
  45. Stomach ulcer (gastric or peptic ulcer)
    Raw area of wall of stomach by breach of inner lining increasing by acid produced by stomach wall
  46. Small intestines diseases
  47. Enteritis
    Inflammation of small intestine caused by infection or imflammation
  48. Colon and rectum diseases
    • Colitis
    • Proctitis
    • Hemorrhoids
    • Appendicitis
  49. Colitis
    Inflammation of colon (large intestine) causing diarrhea, usually with blood and mucus, abdominal pain and fever
  50. Proctitis
    Inflammation of rectum, causing soreness, bleeding and discharge or mucus or pus; associated with inflammation (ulverative colitis, dysentery)
  51. Hemorrhoids
    Distended veins lining anus associated with straining, childbirth and low fiber diet
  52. Appendicitis
    Acute inflammation of appendix causing abdominal pain and peritonitis (inflammation of abdominal wall lining)
  53. Liver diseases
    • Degeneration and infiltration
    • Hepatitis
    • Cirrhosis
  54. Degeneration and infiltration
    Necrosis, edema, clumping of cytoskeletal element, storage of excess material; inflitration by fat with alcoholism
  55. Hepatitis
    • Inflammation of liver
    • Accompanying liver cell damage caused by viral infection, drugs, chemicals or poison
    • Acute or Chronic
    • Viral or Toxic
    • Jaundice
  56. Viral Hepatitis
    • Hepatitis A
    • Hepatitis B
    • Hepatitis C
  57. Hepatitis A
  58. Hepatitis B
  59. Hepatits C
    Transmission through blood transfusion
  60. Toxic Hepatitis
    Massive necrosis onset to death 2-3 weeks
  61. Jaundice
    Yellowing of skin and eye sclera (whites) caused by accumulation of yellow-brown bile pigment, bilirubin in blood; sign of disorders of liver and biliary system
  62. Cirrhosis
    • Disease of liver caused by damage of liver cells
    • Bands of fibrosis break up normal structure of liver; surviving liver cells multiply to form regeneration modules
  63. Postmortem conditions of Cirrhosis
    • Jaundice
    • Ascites
    • Edema
    • Hemorrhage
  64. Gall bladder and bile ducts diseases
    • Cholecystitis
    • Cholelithiasis
    • Cholangitis
  65. Cholecystitis
    Acute or chornic inflammation of gallbladder causing severe abdominal pain generally caused by and obstructed bile duct (gall stone)
  66. Cholelithiasis
    Gall stone; round lumps of solid matter found in gall bladder or in bile duct
  67. Cholangitis
    • Inflammation of common bile duct
    • Acute ascending cholangitis and Sclerosing cholangitis
  68. Pancreas diseases
  69. Peritonitis
    • Inflammation of peritoneum (lining of abdominal wall)
    • Severe abdominal pain
  70. Post mortem conditions of Peritoneum
    • Ascites
    • Dehydration
    • Rapid decomposition
    • Rapid coagulation of blood
    • Febrile lesions (vesicles)
Card Set
Pathology Test 3