What characteristic of the Baroque style is represented by Bernini's sculpture "David Slaying Goliath"?
1. It fills space with action and movement. Painters, sculptors, and architects became interested in forming a total illusion, like a stage setting.
Why was entertainment a necessity to 17th century aristocrats?
Most courtiers did no real work and tried to avoid boredom as much as possible.
Why did 17th century churches begin to use more emotional and theatrical presentations in their services?
to make worship more attractive and appealing
List 6 master composers of the baroque period:
George Frideric Handel, Johann Sebastian Bach, Claudio Monteverdi, Henry Purcell, Arcangelo Corelli, Antonio Vivaldi
What is opera?
a drama sung to orchestral accompaniment
Why did early Baroque composers favor homophonic texture?
They felt that words could be projected more clearly by using just one main melody with a chordal accompaniment.
Why did Baroque composers begin to use more dissonance?
To depict extreme emotions in their texts
T/F Like Renaissance music, Baroque music was mostly choral.
A baroque piece usually expresses one basic mood: what begins joyfully will remain joyful throughout.
Rhythmic patterns heard at the beginning of a piece are repeated throughout it.
Baroque melody also creates a feeling of continuity. An opening melody will be heard again and again in the course of a baroque piece.
the level of volume tends to stay fairly constant for a stretch of time.
predominantly polyphonic in texture: two or more melodic lines compete for the listener's attention
in the baroque period chords became significant in themselves. As composers wrote a melodic line, they thought of chords to mesh with it.
baroque composers used music to depict the meaning of specific words.
What instruments normally played the basso continuo?
harpsichord plus cello, double bass, or bassoon
When were trumpets and tympani used in the baroque orchestras?
Trumpets and timpani joined the orchestra mainly when the music was festive
How was the baroque trumpet different from modern ones?
The baroque trumpet (like the early French horn) had no valves but was given rapid, complex melodic lines to play in a high register
Define movement, as used in musical forms?
a piece that sounds fairly complete and independent but is part of a larger composition.
List 3 types of musical employees of the courts:
an orchestra, a chapel choir, and opera singers
Which eighteenth century king was a flutist and composer?
Frederick the Great
Where did the public hear the most music? Why there?
it was in church that most ordinary citizens heard music. There were few public concerts, and the populace was rarely invited to the palace.
Why did Bach complain about a "healthy wind"?
They suffered a financial pinch when a “healthy wind” blew and there were fewer funerals than usual, a situation Bach once complained about.
Where would town musicians perform?
to play in churches, in processions, in concerts for visiting dignitaries, and for university graduations.
Where were most baroque opera houses?
Why were many famous musicians orphans?
In Italy, music schools were connected with orphanages.
Why did both Bach and Handel turn down one particular job?
Bach and Handel turned down the same job because one of the conditions was marriage to the organist's daughter.
Describe the instrumentation for a concerto grosso
a small group of soloists is pitted against a larger group of players called the tutti (all). Usually, between two and four soloists play with anywhere from eight to twenty or more musicians for the tutti. The tutti consists mainly of string instruments, with a harpsichord as part of the basso continuo.
alternation between tutti and solo sections
Why did Bach include a harpsichord in the solo group of the Brandenburg Concerto #6?
In 1719, the prince of Cöthen bought a new harpsichord; Bach probably wanted to show off this instrument (as well as his own skill as a keyboard player), and so he gave it a solo spot.
What is the texture of a fugue?
Polyphonic; the texture of a fugue usually includes three, four, or five voices.
How do most fugues begin?
the subject is almost always presented in a single, unaccompanied voice
What is different about the "answer" in a fugue?
when the second voice presents the subject, it is in the dominant scale—five scale steps higher than the tonic—and it is then called the answer
What is the difference between inversion and retrograde in a fugue?
Inversion is when it is turned upside down; retrograde is beginning with the last note of the subject and proceeding backward to the first.
"In opera, ____________ is the drama."
What does a librettist do?
The libretto, or text, of the opera is usually written by the librettist, or dramatist.
List the various people needed to produce an opera:
The creation of an opera involves the joint efforts of a composer and a dramatist.
What part of an opera might be spoken?
Spoken dialogue is used mainly in comic opera, where stage action must be performed quickly for the most humorous effect.