1. The Chicago Shool pointedly rejects
  2. According to Burgess's Concentric Zone Theory, most of the crime in a city happens in:
    The Zone of Transition
  3. Collective Efficacy is a term that Sampson, Raudenbush, and Earls use to describe neighborhoods high in..
    • a) Active informal social control
    • b) Mutual trust and aolidarity among neighbors.
  4. According to Sutherland's Differential Association Theory, what ratio determines whther a person embraces crime as an acceptable way of life?
    The ratio of conventional to criminal definitions.
  5. Differential association may vary in....
    Duration, frequency, and intensity
  6. According to Aker's Social Learning Theory, Differential Reinforcement views all behavior as a product of:
    A series of reinforcements or punishments
  7. Aker's Social Learning Theory extended Sutherland's Differential Association Theory by incorporating:
  8. Which is NOT one of Cloward and Ohlin's delinquent subcultures?
    Ritualist subculture
  9. What are 3 of Cloward and Ohlin's delinquent subcultures?
    Conflict or fighting subculture, criminal subculture, and retreatist subculture
  10. According to Anderson's Code of the Streets, minority youths in the inner city are culturally isolated from conventional society and face daunting economic challenges. Because of this isolation, the major project for most of these youths becomes:
    A campaign for respect
  11. What are 3 of Merton's Modes of Individul Adaption in Strain Theory?
    Innovation, Rebellion, Retreatism. (NOT abandonment)
  12. According to Merton's Strain Theory, most crime results when an individual:
    Accepts cultural goals and rejects instituionalized means.
  13. According to Elijah Anderson's Code of the Streets, there are two types of families occupying the inner city. They are:
    "Decent" families and "street" families
  14. What are Agnew's 3 types of strain in his General Strain Theory?
    • 1. Strain due to the actual or anticipated presentation of negative or noxious stimuli
    • 2. Strain from the failure to achieve positiely valued goals
    • 3. Strain generated by the removal of positvely valued stimuli from the individual.
  15. According to Mesner and Rosenfeld's Insititutional-Anomie Theory, the American Dreams serves as a powerful cultural force that generates anomie and, by extension, crime by motivating an insatiable pursuit (or "fetishism") of:
  16. The authors of your textbook primarily want you to know:
    • 1. The individual theories themselves
    • 2. The context in which each theory was developed
    • 3. The policy implications of a given theory
  17. What are 3 underlying assumptions about human nature are the foundation of a social theory of crime?
    Humans are born as blank slates, humans are inherently pro-social, humans are inherently self interested and anti-social.
  18. In searching for the "Criminal Man", theoriests focused primarily upon:
    The individual
  19. What are 3 assumptions of the Classical School of thought?
    • 1. Humans are inherently self-interested
    • 2. Humans maximize pleasure
    • 3. Humans minimize pain
  20. According to Beccaria, punishing rational criminals should be...
    • 1. Swift
    • 2. Certain
    • 3. Proportionate to the crime
  21. What theories are a continuation of the Classical School of criminology is:
    Perceptual Deterrence Theory, Rational Choice Theory, and Routine Activities Theory
  22. The U.S. legal system is based upon the ideas of...
  23. According to your textbook, the negative policy implications of Biological Positivism include:
    Eugenics movements, psychosurgery (e.g. lobotomies), and selective sterilization (NOT PUBLIC EXECUTIONS)
  24. Rational Choice strategies used to make crime less attractive include:
    Increasing the effort needed to commit a crime, increasing the risks of attempting a crime, and reducing the rewards of a crime.
  25. What are the 3 "non-legal" costs in Perception Deterrence theory that is associated with being arrested?
    Attachment costs, Commitment costs, and Stigma of arrest.
  26. The "routine" in Routine Activities Theory refers to:
    Everyday activities, the mundane in life (not the special or abnormal)
  27. Routine Activites Theory can also be called an:
    Environmental Criminology and Opportunity Theory
  28. In Routine Activities Theory, what type of "controller" would you pair with a motivated offender?
  29. An example of a "mechanical strategy" to reduce crime is:
    Surveillance cameras.
Card Set
Criminology Midterm 1