exam 2

  1. Indentifyimportant factors/variables
    Unit 2: Concepts, Factors, Variables
    • Concept: a generalized notion or idea
    • 1. Construct: concept for which measurement is defined
    • 2. Measure: tool used to assess a concept
    • Variable: something that changes (varies)
    • 1. Characteristic: distinguishing trait, feature, or quality
    • 2. Indicator: character. in a set used to assess a concept
    • Factor: something that actively contributes to a result
    • Observed Variable: visivle, reportable characteristic
    • Latent variable: multi-faceted, concealed characteristic

    • According to Salkind, which of the following is the best basis for deciding the measurement, approach to use in a study?
    • D. The research question
  2. Measurement Strategies
    • Tests (personality, attitudes)
    • 1. Personality tests: assess stable individual behavior patterns
    • 2. Attitude tests: assess feelings or beliefs about an object, persons, event, etc.
    • Observations: assess individual, dyad, and family behavior measure behavior
    • Questionnaires: assess characteristics that are easily reported but difficult to observe
    • Interviews: assess characteristics that are sensitive or complex
    • Measurement scale: a questionnaire response options-
    • 1. binary or dichotomous (yes/no questions)
    • 2. likert scale (strongly agree, to strongly disagree),3, 5, 7,9 options for answer
    • 3. semantic differential scale (love it hate it, line, pick, or easy to hard)
    • Measurement level: the precision of a response option
    • 1. Nominal: response options represent name categorical,
    • no order, just names/terms) ex. Male/female, race, are you married (yes/no), binary
    • 2. Ordinal: response options are ordered (likert scale, no equal distance,
    • 3. Interval: response options are ordered with equal spacing between options (age bracket, Fahrenheit, but not centigrade)
    • 4. Ratio: response options are ordered with equal spacing between options and the measurement scale has a true zero point (height), semantic differential scale
    • Observed score: the person's answer on a test or questionnaire or observed behavior, ect. (answer)
  3. Reliability and Vaididity
    • Reliability: the consistency of the observed score from one time point to the next
    • 1. Test-retest reliability: (correlation, percent): the consistency of responses from one time point to the next
    • a. Gather info at 2 time points
    • b. Calculate the proportion of identical responses across both time points
    • 2. Parallel-forms reliability (correlation)
    • 3. Inter-rater reliability (ICC, correlation)
    • 4. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha)
    • Validity: the match between the observed score and the defined characteristic's true score(truth)
    • 1. Convergent validity and discriminant validity
    • 2. Criterion validity: concurrent and predictiv face validity
    • a. Face validity: the extent to which the measure appears to assess the defined characteristic
    • !. Critically examine the measurement strategy
    • !. Ask: does the measure appear to assess the defined characteristic(s)?
    • Which of the following are tests of an observed score's validity?
    • b. Convergent and discriminant
Card Set
exam 2
unit 2