Bio 1 test 1

  1. 4 atoms of life
    carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
  2. 3 uses for radioactive isotopes
    1. Treatment of thyroid cancer (radioactive iodide)

    2. Auto-radiography--self radioactive picture

    3. radio-dating. C14's half-life is 5000 years.
  3. Octet rule
    atoms like to fill their valance shells (except noble/inert gasses)
  4. Ionic bond
    one atom gives another an electron, then the ions are attracted to their charges
  5. electronegativity
    how bad atoms want to fill their valance. O and N want it more that C and H
  6. Covalent polar
    sharing electrons unevenly. H2O--dipole
  7. nonpolar covalent
    sharing electrons evenly. CH4
  8. hydration shell
    when polar water surrounds an ion, like Cl- (anion) or Na+(cation)
  9. Law of Solubility
    Like dissolves like
  10. Hydrogen bonds
    dipole-dipole attraction of separate molecules.
  11. Properties of Water that make it support life (8)
    • 1. hydrogen bonds make high surface tension
    • 2. water adheres and coheres
    • 3. high heat of vaporization (liquid -> gas)
    • 4. high specific heat
    • 5. cools by evaporation
    • 6. solvent: small and polar so can break up and surround
    • 7. Most dense while still in liquid form (4 degrees C)
    • 8. can ionize (a small part)
  12. pH formula
    • - log (H+)
    • - log (10-5) = pH 5
  13. pH6 - pH4
    100x more acidic (10 x 10)
  14. Valance
    # of electrons needed to fulfill the octet rule
  15. 4 ways that carbon skeletons can vary (creating isomers)
    • 1. Length (# carbons)
    • 2. Branching (butane, 2-methylpropane=isobutane)
    • 3. double bond position (1-butene, 2-butene)
    • 4. presence of rings (Benzene, cyclohexane=aromatic)
  16. isomer
    different chemical with same molecular formula
  17. 3 types of isomers
    structural, cis-trans, enantiomers
  18. cis
    large groups on same side of double bond (top or bottom)
  19. trans
    large groups on opposite sides of double bond (top and bottom)
  20. enantiomers
    mirror images. Can only exist with 4 different functional groups. Have L (left) and D (right) isomers with different properties (medical). Discovered by Louis Pasteur
  21. alcohols
    -OH, hydroxyl group.
  22. sugars
    1 carbonyl group and multiple OH groups. Either an aldose or a ketose
  23. Carbonyl
    =C=O Ketones (=C=O) inside or Aldehydes (-CHO) at end.
  24. Aldehyde
    -CHO, terminating carbonyl group
  25. ketone
    =C=O Carbonyl group inside molecule
  26. Carboxyl
    organic acid. -COOH (Amine + Carboxyl + R group = amino acid)
  27. Amino
    -N-H2 Amine (Amine + Carboxyl + R group = amino acid)
  28. Sulfhydryl
    -SH, -HS, Thiol
  29. Thiol
    -SH, -HS, Sulfhydryl
  30. Phosphate
  31. Methyl
    -CH3 Methylated Compound
  32. types of macromolecules
    carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
  33. Starch
    polysaccharide. Plant storage. Made of alpha glucose
  34. cellulose
    type of starch. Made of beta glucose. Plant polysaccharide. Undigestible by animals. Plant cell wall.
  35. Lipid
    defined by being insoluble in water (nonpolar). Not polymers
  36. fatty acid
    long carbon skeleton with carboxyl group at one end. Nonpolar. Part of many molecules (tails).
  37. Triacyl glycerol
    trigliceride, lipid. 3 fatty acid tails attached to 1 glycerol
  38. trans fats
    man made fats with trans double bonds (hydrogenating)
  39. phospholipids
    lipid. Membrane component. Immediatly forms phospholipid by-layer in water. Contains PO4 group (polar, hydrophilic), glycerol and 2 fatty acid tails (nonpolar, hydrophobic). If tail has 1 or more double bonds, it is unsaturated. Otherwise it is saturated.
  40. dehydration synthesis
    removing a water molecule to connect two monomers into a polymer
  41. Hydrolysis
    inserting a water molecule to break apart a polymer
  42. simple sugars
    Carbohydrates [CH2O]n
  43. Trioses
    simple sugar, carbohydrate. C3H6O3
  44. Pentoses
    Simple sugar, carbohydrate. C5H10O5.
  45. hexoses
    Glucose. Simple sugar. Carbohydrate. C6H12O6
  46. Chitin
    polysaccharide of insects and fungi. Dissolving sutures
  47. glucose
    Monosaccharide. Hexose. Carbohydrate. C6H12O6. Aldose. Forms ring.
  48. Amylose
    simplest form of starch (unbranched). Long unbound chain of glucose structures
  49. amylopectin
    starch in a Y shape (like amylose or glycogen)
  50. Glycogen
    animal polysaccharide with lots of ends so it can break down faster.
  51. Saturated fats
    animal fats containing no double bonds, so they freeze easily and are solid at room temperature
  52. unsaturated fats
    plant fats containing at least one double bond. Freezing point is high and they are liquid at room temperature
  53. cholesterol
    nonpolar lipid steroid with 4 fused rings. All other steroids (sex hormones) synthesized from it.
  54. types of proteins (8)
    • enzymatic
    • storage (milk (casein), egg whites (albumin), seeds)
    • hormonal (insulin, vasopressin, oxytocin)
    • contractile and motor proteins (actin, myosin)
    • defensive (antibodies)
    • transport (hemoglobin)
    • receptor (chemoreceptors--smell)
    • structural (keratin--hair, nails etc.)
  55. What are amino acids held together by?
    peptide bonds (polypeptide is protein). Polypeptide is a polymer of amino acids
  56. Amino Acid
    amino plus carboxyl group, around an asymmetric alpha carbon. The carbon is attached to these two groups, a hydrogen and the R group.
  57. Primary structure of Amino Acids
    sequence of amino acids
  58. secondary structure of amino acids
    hydrogen bonding in amino acids (alpha helix and beta pleated sheets)
  59. tertiary structure in amino acids
    R-group interactions (hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, disulfide bridges)
  60. quaternary structure of amino acids
    multiple polypeptides held together by hydrogen bonds
  61. Denaturing
    changing the function and physical properties of proteins. Cooking egg whites or unwinding overlap (hair).
  62. Nucleotide
    • Monomer of nucleic acid polymer (polynucleotide)
    • 1. sugar pentose (DNA and RNA use ribose and deoxyribose. Deoxy has 1 less O)
    • 2. phosphate group
    • 3. Nitrogenous base
    • Have a 5 end and a 3 end, and run antiparallel(highway)
  63. Nitrogenous bases
    • pyramidine (one fused cyclohexane)
    • purine (two fused cyclohexanes)
  64. DNA structure
    Polynucleotide. Sugar and Phosphate form backbone, Nitroginous base forms ladder rungs. Hydrogen bonds create double helix.
  65. Robert Hooke
    saw first "prison cells" in cork
  66. van Leuwenhoek
    saw first microorganisms in pond water and semen
  67. Schleiden and Schwann
    cell theory: all life is composed of cells. Cells are the basic unit of life. All cells come from pre-existing cells..
  68. Resolution
    ability to distinguish 2 dots as 2 dots
  69. Light microscope (LM)
    regular microscope, where light passes through the subject.
  70. electron microscope
    shoots electrons through object. Must be placed in a vacuum. Object must be dead. Can see organelles
  71. Organelles
    internal cellular structures
  72. vital dyes
    dyes that allow cells to keep living
  73. microtome
    deli-slicer for cells
  74. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
    coat objects with gold and then excite electrons to get a 3D image on a screen. GOod for topography
  75. transmission electron microscope (TEM)
    see internal structures by coating with heavy metals like lead. Good for internal structures
  76. phase-contrast
    density is amplified to enhance contrast
  77. differential-interference contrast
    exaggerate density to make object look 3D
  78. fluorescence
    inject with fluorescence. Emits visible light
  79. confocal
    takes light from specific planes--sharper images
  80. Fractionation and Centrifugation
    put cells in the blender, then centrifuge them. Weight makes them settle out separately.
  81. prokaryotes
    Bacterial cells. Nucleoid--no membrane to contain DNA. Have ribosomes, plasma membrane, cell wall (proteoglycan), Capsule (polysaccharide slime), Flagella, Fibriae (pilis--sexual reproduction and anchorage).
  82. plasma membrane
    half phospholipids, half proteins (transport proteins), carbohydrate side chain (markers to identify cells--blood type).
  83. Nucleus
    largest organelle in animal cells. Has all DNA. Has double membrane and nuclear pores.
  84. Nucleolus
    ribosomes are made. DNA is contained here. So is chromatin (DNA and protein)
  85. Free ribosomes
    out in cytoplasm. Make proteins that work in cytosol
  86. Bound ribosomes
    create proteins that are secreted from cell, work in membrane or lysosomes
  87. endomembrane system
    nucleus, ER, golgi apparatus, plasma membrane, lysosomes, vacuoles/vesicles. Synthesizes proteins, transport of proteins into membranes or organelles or out of cell, metabolism and movement of lipids and detox of poisons
  88. rough endoplasmic reticulum
    studded with ribosomes, makes membrane proteins. Stores them in lumen of ER (cisternae). Membrane is continous with nuclear envelope. Makes insulin, glycoproteins (proteins with carbs), membrane factory. Grows in place (adds to own membrane)
  89. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    detoxification (drugs and poisons), stores calcium, synthesizes lipids (oils, phospholipids, steroids)
  90. Golgi apparatus
    "post office". Takes transport vesicles from rough Er in on Cis side, reads them, labels them and sends them out the trans side to the membrane. Cisternae with enzymes. Modifies glycoproteins, membrane phospholipids and makes polysaccharides
  91. lysosome
    "splitting bodies". Little stomachs full of digestive enzymes performing phagocytosis and autophagy. Some are made by rough Er and golgi
  92. peroxisome
    "test tubes". Delicate enzymes are put in peroxisomes to work more efficiently
  93. Mitochondria
    2nd largest organelle. Double membrane (inner folded membrane called cristae), own DNA and ribosomes. Cellular respiration. Glucose+oxygen=carbon dioxide, water and ATP.
  94. endosymbiosis
    when a tiny organism lives within a larger one long enough that they become a part of each other--mitochondria and chloroplasts
  95. cytoskeleton
    microfilaments, microtubules, intermediate filaments. Support, movement, anchorage of organelles, vesicle tracts
  96. microtubules
    hollow tube. alpha and beta proteins. Major components of cilia and flagella. Also serves as spindle apparatus in mitosis. Centrisome hub. Tracks in cell (golgi to plasma), growth of plant cell wall.
  97. microfilaments
    actin filaments. Braided rope. Muscle contraction, cytoplasmic streaming (organisms moving on actin tracks), clevage of cell. Ameboid movement. Bear tension, cell shape (cortex), so it's a gel not a liquid. Microvilli. Cytoplasmic streaming.
  98. Intermediate filaments
    Tough proteins that give cell structure. different from cell to cell. Bear tension. More permanent than others. Hold cell shape, hold nucleus in place. Lamina.
  99. centrisomes
    consists of 2 centrioles. made of tubulin. spindle apparatus in mitosis
  100. flagella
    mostly sperm cells in animal, but in many plants (algae and fungi). involved in locomotion. Also cilia. movement. 9+2 arrangement.
  101. dynein protein
    motor. Bends flagella/cilia and makes it "walk" on microtubules.
  102. Microvilli
    inside of intestine. Convoluted surface of some cells. Plasma membrane's finger-like projections. Underneath each one is microfilament.
  103. Plant Cell vs Animal Cell
    • Plant: chloroplasts, central vacuole, cell wall and plasmodema
    • Animal: lysosomes, centrisomes
    • Both: Nucleus, smooth Er, Rough Er, Ribosomes, Cytoskeleton, plasma membrane, mitochondria, golgi, peroxisome, flagella
  104. lamella
    proteins that glue the cell walls together.
  105. Extracellular matrix
    outside cell wall, loose mesh of proteins. Communication between inside and outside. In animal, collagen, proteoglycan.
  106. Desmosomes (animal)
    the velcro that bonds cells and tissues.
  107. gap-junction (animal)
    little tubes connecting cells, letting ions and tiny molecules through.
  108. tight junctions (animal)
    the rubberband that prevents things from squeezing between the cells. Found in GI tract.
  109. chloroplasts
    site of photosynthesis (opposite of cellular respiration). Double membranes. Inner membrane is green. Where chlorophyl (pigment) occurs. Thylakoid stacks (green), stroma (fluid) is outside. Has DNA and ribosomes. Mobile--move on cytoskeleton. Plastid.
  110. central vacuole
    big sac of water with ions and chemicals inside. Filler for plant cell.
  111. Photosynthesis formula
    6CO2 + 6H2O--> C6H12O6 + 6O2
  112. Cellular respiration formula
    C6H12O6 + 6O2--> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36ATP
  113. Cell wall
    plants have 2--elastic primary while growing, secondary more substancial. Made of cellulose. Fights gravity, stops osmosis. Outside of plasma membrane. Microfibrils.
  114. Plasmodema (plant cell)
    like gap junctions in animal cells. Passages that can open, close and dilate to allow proteins and mRNA to enter. Allow lots of communication, so plants act like 1 big super-cell.
  115. qualitative data
    recorded observations that are descriptions, not numbers
  116. quantitative data
    recorded observations of numbers and measurements
  117. three steps of the scientific method
    • observation
    • hypothesis
    • experimentation
  118. inductive reasoning
    logic in which generalizations are based on observations
  119. deductive reasoning
    logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise (if-then)
  120. 3 elements of a good experiment
    • control group
    • repetition
    • large, representative samples of all sides
  121. asymmetrical carbon
    C attached to 4 different atoms/molecules
  122. glycosidic linkages
    covalent bonds between monosaccharides by dehydration synthesis, turning them into disaccharides
Card Set
Bio 1 test 1
Bio 1 test 1