What bones for the knee joint?
Tibial condyles articulating with femoral condyles of the femur.
articular surface medial condyle
- oval in outline
- concave in all directions
- lateral border projects upwards as the medial intercondylar tubercle
articular surface of the lateral condyle
- circular in outline
- concave from side to side but convex from front to back
- medial border extends upwards as the lateral intercondylar tubercle
- separates the tibial articular surfaces
- the horns of the menisci and cruciate ligaments are attached herem.
raised area in the middle of the intercondylar area
proximal tibiofibular joint
formed by inferior surface of LAT condyle articulates with the head of the fibula
upper end of ANT border of shaft. For attachemnt of the patellar ligament which is the tendon of insertion of the quadriceps
What is subcutaneous throughout the shaft?
shin (anterior surface) and smooth medial surface
stretches between the interosseous borders of the tibia and fibula
What makes up the ankle joint?
ankle mortise and trochlea of the body of the talus
what makes up the ankle mortise
- inferior articular surface of tibia
- medial and lateral malleolus
inferior articular surface of tibia
articulates with the upper surface of the trochlea of the talus. Concave from front to bakc and slightly convex from side to side. Medialy it is continuous with the MED malleolus.
medial surface is subcutaneous and lateral surface has a comma shaped facet that articulates with the MED side of the trochlea of the talus
lateral surface of tibia bound by ligaments tot he lower end of the fubula to form the distal tibiofibular joint
head of fibula
upper surface articulates with the lateral condyle of the tibia at the proximal tibiofibular joint
apex of fibula
projects upward from the fibular head
Neck of fibula
crossed by the common fibular nerve which can be rolled against the bone
- bound to the tibia by the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis
- Lateral surface is subcutaneous. Medial surface has a triangular facet that articulates with the lateral surface of the trochlea of the talus
Anterior crural muscle features
- dorsiflexors, (ANT to transverse axis), EXT toes
- bound by LAT surface of tibia and ANT crural septum
- Deep fibular nerve
- anterior tibial artery
What are the anterior crural muscles
Anterior tibialis, Extensor hallucis long, extensor digitorum longus, fibularis tertius
Lateral crural muscle features
- bound by crural intermuscula septa
- Everts and PF foot
- Superficial fibular nerve
- fibular artery (branch of posterior tibial artery)
What are the lateral crural muscles
fibularis longis, fibularis brevis
What are the posterior crural muscles
- Superficial - Gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris,
- Deep - popliteus, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, tibialis posterior
Posterior crural muscles general features
- PF and INV of foot, FLEX of toes
- Tibial nerve
- posterior tibial artery
Tibial nerve pathway
back of the thigh--> middle of the popliteal fossa-->between the 2 heads of the gastrocnemius and deep to soleus. Descends w/ the POST tibial vessels between the superficial & deep groups of muscles lying on the TIB POST. --> between the MED maleolus and tendo calcaneus ends under the flexor retinaculum
What does the tibial nerve divide into?
medial and LAT plantar nerves
MED sural cutaneous nerve
arises from the tibial nerve in the popliteal fossa --> combines with lateral sural nerve
LAT sural cutaneous nerve
branch of the common fibular nerve, joined by the medial sural cutaneous nerve
- made by the combination of the Medial and Lateral sural nerves
- supplies the skin on the posterolateral lower 1/3 of the leg and the LAT side of the foot and little toe
Path of the common fibular nerve
follows tendon of biceps femoris along LAT side of popliteal fossa. --> around neck of fibula between the fibula and fibularis longus it divides into 2 terminal branches
what are the 2 terminal branches of the
superficial and deep fibular nerves
lateral sural cutaneous nerve
- branch of common fibular nerve.
- supplies the skin on the upper 2/3 of the leg
superficial fibular nerve feature
between fibularis longus and brevis (innervates these) then becomes cutaneous neve
What does superficial fibular nerve branch into?
medial and lateral cutaneous branches
Cutaneous supply of the superficial fibular nerve?
skin on the anterolateral lower 1/3 of leg and dorsum of the foot except the adjacent sides of 1st and 2nd toes
deep fibular nerve
- in front of the interosseous membrance along the ANT tibial vessels and continues onto the dorsum of the foot.
- innervates all ANT crural muscles
from femoral artery once it passes behind knee through the hiatus of the adductor magnus. to lower border of popletues
what does popliteus divide into?
ANT and POST tibial arteries
Sural branches of popliteal artery supply?
superficial group of calf muscles
genicular branches of popliteal
- anastamose around the knee.
- 5 branches. MED, LAT, SUP, middle, and MED
ANT Tib artery
passes between the tibia and fibula above the interoseous membrane to the front of the leg. descend on the interosseous membrane along with deep fibular nerve to foot
What the ANT tibialis artery become?
dorsalis pedis artery when it crosses the ankle joint
What does ANT tib supply?
ANT muscles of leg. Recurrent and malleolar branches join the anastomotic networks around the knee and ankle
POST tibial artery
accompanies the tibial nerve down the calf to the flexor retinaculum where it divides
what does the POST tibial artery divide into?
Medial and Lateral plantar branches
What does the POST tibial artery supply?
soleus and the deep muscles of the calf.
- largest branch of posterior tibial
- arises below the popliteus and descneds near the fibula deep to the flexor hallucis longus.
What does the fibular artery supply?
deep muscles of the calf and fibular (peroneal) muscles)