101 exam 1

  1. Constructs
    Internal attributes or characteristics that cannot be directly observed but are useful for describing and explaining behavior
  2. continuous variable
    An infinite number of possible values that fall between any two observed values. A continuous variable is divisible into an infinite number of fractional parts.
  3. control condition
    Individuals who do not receive the experimental treatment. Instead, they either receive no treatment or they receive a neutral, placebo treatment. The purpose of a control condition is to provide a baseline for comparison with the experimental condition.
  4. correlational method
    Two different variables are observed to determine whether there is a relationship between between them.
  5. data
    A collection of measurements or observations.
  6. datum
    A single measurement or observation and is commonly called a score or raw score.
  7. dependent variable
    The variable that is observed to assess the effect of the treatment.
  8. descriptive statistics
    Statistical procedures used to summarize, organize, and simplify data.
  9. discrete variable
    Consists of separate, indivisible categories. No values can exist between two neighboring categories.
  10. experimental condition
    Individuals who do receive the experimental treatment.
  11. experimental method
    One variable is manipulated while another variable is observed and measured. To establish a cause-and-effect relationship between the two variables, an experiment attempts to control all other variables to prevent them from influencing the results.
  12. independent variable
    The variable that is manipulated by the researcher. In the behavioral research, the independent variable usually consists of the two (or more) treatment conditions to which subjects are exposed. The independent variable consists of the antecedent conditions that are manipulated prior to observing the dependent variable.
  13. inferential statistics
    techniques that allow us to study samples and then make generalizations about the populations from which they were selected.
  14. interval scale
    Ordered categories that are all intervals of exactly the same size. Equal differences between numbers on scale reflect equal differences in magnitude. However, the zero point on an interval scale is arbitrary and does not indicate a zero amount of the variable being measured.
  15. lower real limit
    the bottom of the interval (for continuous variables)
  16. operational definition
    Identifies a measurement procedure (a set of operations) for measuring an external behavior and uses the resulting measurements as a definition and a measurement of a hypothetical construct. Note that an operational definition has two components: first, it describes a set of operations for measuring a construct. second, it defines the construct in terms of the resulting measurements.
  17. ordinal scale
    A set of categories that are organized in an ordered sequence. Measurements on an ordinal scale rank observations in terms of size or magnitude.
  18. parameter
    Avalue, usually a numeric value, that describes a population. A parameter is usually derived from measurements of the individuals in the population.
  19. population
    the set of all the individuals of interest in a particular study
  20. quasi-independent experiment
    in a nonexperimental study, the "independent variable" that is used to create the different groups of scores is often called this
  21. ratio scale
    An interval scale with the additional feature of an absolute zero point. With a ratio scale, ratios of numbers do reflect ratios of magnitude.
  22. real limits
    The boundaries of intervals for scores that are represented on a continuous number line. The real limit separating two adjacent scores is located exactly halfway between the scores.
  23. sample
    a set of individuals selected from a population, usually intended to represent the population in a research study
  24. sampling error
    the discrepancy, or amount of error, that exists between a sample statistic and the corresponding population parameter
  25. statistic
    a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing, and interpreting information
  26. upper real limit
    the top of the interval (for continuous variables)
  27. variable
    a characteristc or condition that changes or has different values for different individuals
  28. frequency distribution
    an organized tabulation of the number of individuals located in each category on the scale of measurement
  29. negatively skewed
    a skewed distribution with the tail pointed to the left-hand side (below zero)
  30. positively skewed
    a skewed distribution with the tail pointing to the ride-hand side (above zero)
  31. skewed distribution
    the score tends to pile up toward one end of the scale and taper off gradually at the other end
  32. symmetrical distribution
    it is possible to draw a vertical line through the middle so that one side of the distribution is a mirror image of the other
  33. tail
    the section where the scores taper off toward one end of a distribution
  34. central tendency
    A statistical measure to dtermine a single score that define the center of a distribution. The goal of central tendency is to find the single score that is most typical or most representative of the entire group.
  35. mean
    the sum of the scores, divided by the number of scores
  36. median
    if the scores in a distribution are listed in order from smallest to largest, it is the midpoint of the list
  37. mode
    in a frequency distribution, this is the score or category that has the greatest frequency
Card Set
101 exam 1