CJUS terminology, Chapters 5 and6

  1. time-in-rank system
    for police officers to advance in rank, they must spend an appropriate amount of time in the preceding rank
  2. police chief
    the top administrator of the police department: sets policy and has general control over the departmental policies and practices. Typically political rather than civil service appointee and serves at the pleasure of the mayor
  3. order maintenance/peacekeeping
    involves maintaining order and authority without the need for formal arrest, using threats, persuasion, and understanding
  4. proactive policing
    a policy that emphasizes stopping crimes before they occur, rather than reacting to crimes that have already occurred
  5. deterrent effect
    stopping or reducing crime by convincing would-be criminals that they stand a significant risk of being apprehended and punished for their crimes
  6. directed patrol
    a strategy that involves concetrating police resources in areas where certain crimes are a significant problem
  7. broken windows model
    a term used to describe the role of the police as maintainers of community order and safety; a disorderly, unkept community invites crime, whereas a community that appears to be well maintained is less likely to have as much crime
  8. CompStat
    a program originated by the NYC police that used carefully collected and analyzed crime data to shape policy and evaluate police effectiveness
  9. sting operation
    an undercover police operation in which police pose as criminals to trap law violators
  10. vice squad
    police officers assigned to enforce morality-based laws (prostitution, gambling, porn)
  11. forensic science
    the use of scientific techniques to investigate questions of interest to the justice system and solve crimes
  12. community policing
    programs and strategies designed to bring police and the public closer together and create a more cooperative working environment between them
  13. foot patrol
    police partols that take officers out of carts and put them on a walking beat in order to strengthen ties with the community
  14. neighborhood oriented policing (NOP)
    community policing efforts aimed at individual neighborhoods
  15. problem-oriented policing
    a style of police operations that stresses proactive problem solving, rather than reactive crime fighting
  16. hot spots of crime
    places from which a significant portion of all poloce calls originate. These hot spots include taverns and housing projects.
  17. internal affairs
    the branch of the police department that investigates charges of corruption or misconduct on the part of police officers
  18. double marginality
    the social burden African-American police officers carry by virtue of being both minority group members and police officers
  19. cynicism
    the belief that most people's actions are motivated solely by personal needs and selfishness
  20. blue curtain
    the secretive, insulared police culture that isolates officers from the rest of society
  21. discretion
    the use of personal decision making and choice in carrying out operations in the criminal justice system
  22. emotional intelligence
    the ability to monitor one's own and others' feeling and emotions, to descriminate among them and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions
  23. demeanor
    the way in which a person outwardly manifests his or her personality
  24. racial profiling
    the practice of police targeting minority groups because of a belief that they are more likely to be engaged in criminal activity
  25. police brutality
    usually involves such actions as the use of abusive language, the unnecessary use of force or coercion, threats, prodding with nightsticks, stopping and searching people to harass them, and so on
  26. corruption
    exercising legitimate discretion for imporper reasons or using illegal means to achieve approved goals
  27. Knapp Commission
    a public body that led an investigation into police corruption in New York and uncovered a widespread network of payoffs and bribes
  28. meat eaters
    a term for police officers who actively solicit bribes and vigorously engage in corrupt practices
  29. grass eaters
    a term for police officers who accept payoffs when everyday duties place them in a position to "look the other way"
  30. deadly force
    force that is likely to cause death or serious bodily harm
  31. suicide by cop
    a form of suicide in which a person acts in an aggressive manner with police officers in order to induce them to shoot to kill
  32. less-lethal weapons
    weapons designed to disable or immobilize rather than kill criminal suspects
  33. Miranda warning
    the requirement that police officers inform suspects subjected to custodial interrogation that they have a constitutional right to remain silent
  34. search warrant
    an order issued by a judge, directing officers to conduct a search of specficied premises for specified objects or persons and bring them before the court
  35. probable cause
    the evidentiary criterion necessary to sustain an arrest or the issuance of an arrest or search warrant; less than absolute certainty, beyond reasonable doubt, but greater than mere suspicion/hunches.
  36. stop and frisk
    the situation when police officers who are suspicious of an individual run their hands lightly over the suspects outer garments to determine whether the person is carrying a concealed weapon.
  37. exclusionary rule
    the principle that prohibits the use, in a trial, of evidence illegally obtained.
  38. good faith exception
    the principle that evidence may be used in a criminal trial, even though the search warrant used to obtain it is tchnically faulty, if the police acted in good faith and to the best of their ability when they sought to obtain it from a judge.
Card Set
CJUS terminology, Chapters 5 and6
key terms from chapters 5 and 6 of Essentials of Criminal Justice