General Psychology Test #4 - Module 1_Chapter 33_The Psychoanalytic Perspective.txt

  1. Define Personality.
    An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
  2. Define Free Association.
    In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
  3. Define Psychoanalysis.
    Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions.
  4. Define Unconscious.
    According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.
  5. Define Id.
    Contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
  6. Define Ego.
    The largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
  7. Define Superego.
    The part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.
  8. Define Psychosexual Stages.
    The childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
  9. Define Oedipus Complex.
    According to Freud, a boy's sexual desire towards his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.
  10. Define Identification.
    The process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos.
  11. Define Fixation.
    According to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.
  12. Define Defense Mechanisms.
    In psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
  13. Define Repression.
    In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
  14. Define Regression.
    Psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety reacts to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixed.
  15. Define Reaction Formation.
    Psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.
  16. Define Projection.
    Psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
  17. Define Rationalization.
    Psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses towards a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.
  18. Define Collective Unconscious.
    Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history.
  19. Define Projective Test.
    A personality test, such as the Roschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics.
  20. Define Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).
    A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.
  21. Define Rorschach Inkbolt Test.
    The most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.
  22. Who is Sigmund Freud?
    A personality theorist and psychologist who coined the concept of psychoanalysis.
  23. Observing patients led Freud to his "discovery" of the ____________.
  24. Freud initially thought __________ might unlock the door to the unconscious, but patients deplayed an ________________ for it.
    • hypnosis
    • uneven capacity
  25. What did Freud turn to after hypnosis and what did he believe it would do?
    He turned to free assication, which he believed allowed him to retrace the line of mental dominos that fallen from his patients' difficult past to the present, which was a chain in thought leading into the patients' unconscious, and could retrieve and release the painful memories.
  26. Freud called free association and associated treatments ___________.
  27. Freud believed that the mind was _______________.
    mostly hidden
  28. SOme thoughts we store temprarily in a ______________, from which we can retrieve them into __________________.
    • preconscious area
    • conscious awareness
  29. What was of greater interest to Freud?
    The mass of unacceptable passions and thoughts that he believed we repress because they would be too unsettling to acknowledge.
  30. What did Freud believe he could glimpse the unconscious seeping into?
    People's free associations, beliefs, habits, symptoms, slips of tongue, slips of pen.
  31. What does human personality arise from?
    A conflict between our aggressive, pleasure-seeking biological impulses and the internalized social restraints against them.
  32. List the three interacting systems helping to understand the mind's dynamics during the human personality conflict.
    • Id
    • Ego
    • Superego
  33. What happens with a child beginning around ages 4 and 5?
    His/her ego recognizes the demand of the newly emerging superego.
  34. Out of the three interacting systems for personality, which two conflict, and which one reconciles?
    Because the superego's demands often oppose the id's, the ego struggles to reconcile the two.
  35. According to Freud, when does a personality form develop?
    During life's first few years.
  36. List the five parts of Freud's Psychosexual Stages
    • Oral
    • Anal
    • Phallic
    • Latency
    • Genital
  37. What is the Oral stage of Freud's Psychosexual stages?
    Occurs between birth and 18 months. Pleasure centers on the mouth through sucking, biting, and chewing.
  38. What is the Anal stage of Freud's Psychosexual Stages?
    Occurs between 18 and 36 months. Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladdar elimination; coping with demands for control.
  39. What is the Phallic stage of Freud's Psychosexual Stages?
    Occurs between 3 and 6 years. Pleasure zone is in the genitals; coping with incestuout sexual feelings.
  40. What is the Latency stage of Freud's Psychosexual Stages?
    Occurs between 6 years and puberty. There are dormant sexual feelings.
  41. What is the Genital stage of Freud's Psychosexual Stages?
    Occurs from puberty to end of life. There is a maturation of sexual interests.
  42. Conflicts unresolved during earlier psychosexual stages could surface as what?
    Maladaptive behavior in the adult years.
  43. At any point in the Psychosexual stages, what could happen?
    Strong conflict could fixate the person's pleasure-seeking energies in that stage.
  44. List the six examples of defense mechanisms.
    • Repression
    • Regression
    • Reaction Formation
    • Projection
    • Rationalization
    • Displacement
  45. Those accepting Freud's basic ideas are called ___________.
  46. Identify Alfred Adler and Karen Horney.
    Believed that childhood social, not sexual, tensions are crucial for personality formation.
  47. What idea did Alfred Adler propose?
    The interiority Complex
  48. Identify Carl Jung.
    Placed less emphasis on social factors and agreed with Freud that the unconscious exerts a powerful influence, but to him, the unconscious contained a collective unconscious.
  49. Humans have ___________ access to what goes on in their minds.
Card Set
General Psychology Test #4 - Module 1_Chapter 33_The Psychoanalytic Perspective.txt
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