What are RDAs?
Recommended Daily Allowances. First published in 1943 - developed to account for food shortages due to rationing. This was a listing of minimum nutrient intake to prevent deficiences.
What are DRIs?
Dietary Reference Intakes - A set nutrient intake recommondations designed to not only prevent nutrient deficiences but also promote good health. Not just the bare essentials of what you need to stay alive but also to be healthy. They are recommondations on what should be consumed on an average daily basis. They are also take into account different life stages.
What 6 nutrient groups do DRIs concentrate on?
- Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vet. D, and fluoride.
- Be vitamins and choline
- Antioxidants ( vit C, E, selenium, beta-carotene
- Vit A, K, trace elements ( iron, zinc, copper )
- Energy and macronutrients
- Electrolytes and water
What are 4 different sets of reference values included in DRIs?
Estimated Average Requirements - The amount of nutrient estimated to meet the needs of 50% of the people in a specific population ( women over 40 ). The other 50% are going to need more.
Recommended Dietary Allowances ( RDAs ) - Designed to meet the needs of just about anyone in a population young, old, women, men. Refelcts nutrient needs that are greater than just 50% of a certain population, can be used as a personal target for nutrient intake.
Adequate Intakes - Pretty much what the name implies, if you take the amount of nutrient determined by AI to be enough, then you should probably be fine.
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels - Desigend to show the maximum amount of a nutrient an individual can consume without ( probably ) suffering any ill effects due to toxicity in the body due to too much of that nutrient.
What are Estimated Energy Recommondations?
A general recommendation of how much energy ( in kcals ) for a specific person ( male, 32, physically active ) should take in in a day.
What are Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges?
AMDRs - If EERs say a person should take in 2000 kcals of energy a day, AMDRs say what percentages of that energy should come from Protein, Fat, and Carbohydrates. The percentages are in ranges so that if you take a larger amount of one energy source, you would take less of another.
What are the ranges for AMDRs?
- Carbohydrates 45% - 65%
- Fat 20% - 35%
- Protein 10% - 35%
What are the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
A set of lifestyle recommondations to promote health and reduce chronic disease risks in Americans.
Very general but important stuff - get plenty of exercise, eat less saturated and trans fat, don't eat so much sugar, eat plenty of fiber.
What are discretionary kcalories?
Discretionary kcalories - A person needs a certain amount of nutrients in a day as well as a certain amount of energy per day.
If you're eating nutrient dense foods you may consume all the nutrients you need before you've actually consumed all the energy you need.
Those "left over kcalories" of energy that you should consume are kind of all up to your discrection since you've already satisfied nutriend intake.
It is recommended however that you just have a balanced diet rather than lots of brocoli to satisfy nutrient requirement and then chocolate cake to take care of remaining discretionary calories.
What are some key messages of mypyramid / my plate?
Exercise - 30 min a day to reduce risk of disease, 60 min a day to stay fit, 60 - 90 to lose weight.
Eat a variety of food - brocoli alone will not make you healthy, there is no one food that can satisfy all your dietary needs.
Proportionality - proper mix of grains, vegetables, protein sources, dairy. Not necesarrily tons of cheese with just a bit of brocoli.
Moderation - Seriously, don't eat too much.
Food labels must contain...
Basic product information
: name of product, how much is in container, sell by daete, name of manufacturer.
- Nutrition facts panel: Serving size, Daily values:
- Daily values - percentage of nutrient requirement met for 2000 kcal diet in one serving of the food ( vitamin A ), OR, nutrient limit for 2000 calorie diet (fat ).
- The ingredients listed first are the ones present in the food in the larges amounts.
Food labels must show Daily Value for:
- Total fat
- Saturated fat
- Total carbohydrate
- Dietary fiber
- Vit A, C
Dietary supliment labels must include...
- The words "dietary suppliment" on the label
- Supplement facts ( like nutritional facts ) listing recommended serving size and amount of nutrient / ingredient in each serving.
- Other ingredients for which daily values have not been established.
Supplements are classified as food, not drugs.
What is cGMP?
current Good Manufacturing Practice ( regulations ).
These are regulations established that require manufacturers to test their products to ensure identity, purity, strength and composition of the supplement.
What is USP?
What is DVSP?
Dietary Supplement Verification Program - a voluntary program that evaluates and confirms the contents of dietary supplements, manufacturing processes, and compliance with standards of purity.
Nutrient content claims...
Foods labels sometimes say things like "excellent source of...", etc. There are requirements for when they get to say such things.
- Good source - 10 - 19% of daily value
- Excellent source - 20% or more of daily value
- Contains - < 9% of daily value.
- reduced - reduced by at least 25%
- Free - less than .5 g per serving.
Food labels might say "fiber reduces risk of heart disease". These statements must be approved by the FDA.
For supplements if claim is not approved the label will say "these statements have not been approved by the FDA".
Organize nutrition by carbohydrate, meat, and fat groups. These lists will show a comparison of how an amount of one kind of food compares to another amount of a different food with similar nutritional worth.
Healthy People initiatives...
A set of public health objectives published every 10 years by the US Public Health Service. They list objectives that people can follow that will help them keep healthy.
What is nutritional status?
The state of health as influenced by the intake and utilization of nutrients.
An evaluation of a person or group of people to determine their nutritional status, to determine if they have the proper amount of different nutrients in them.
What are ways to perform nutritional assesment?
Control intake - only allow precise amounts of specific nutrients to be consumed, this way you will know exactly what you are taking in. Can really only be done in studies where patients are constantly monitored.
24 hour recal - list everything you ate in the last 24 hours. This does not give you a good idea of general nutrient intake, just the past day of it.
Food records - subjuects record everything they eat in a certain amount of time. Very specific recording of information but subjects may change what they normally would eat, skewing the results.
Laboratory measurements - going to the doctor and getting blood, urine, and fecal tests.
Food frequency chart - a chart of various foods which patients mark showing how often they eat the different kinds of food. Patients sometimes lie about it.
Diet History - general idea of patient's nutrition intake ( eats vegetables everyday, eats chips and ice cream every day ).
What are some ways of analyzing nutritional health?
Anthropometric measurements - external measurement of the body - taking into consideration, height, weight, body fat.
Medical history and physical exam - taking into consideration medical history or patient and patient's relatives ( history of diseases in family? ), life stage ( old man? ), current health conditions.
Laboratory measurements - blood, pee pee, poop tests. Blood tests tells you what is in the system now, pee and poop tests tell you what is not being absorbed.
What are the stages of nutrient deficiency?
- Inadequate intake
- Decreased stores and tissue levels
- Altered biochemical and physological functions
- Physical signs and symtoms.
What is the National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Program?
A program responsible for providing an ongoing description of nutrition conditions in the poulation by collecting information about how much food is available, how nutritious that food is, eating habits of the population and nutritional status of population.
what is NHANES?
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. IT is conducted by the Department of Health and Human Services. It is a survey that looks at food consumption, medical histories, physical exams, labratory measurements, to monitor nutritional and health information.