Political Science 101

  1. Federalism
    A system in which government powers are divided between a centrail goverment and smaller units , such as states.
  2. Confederation
    a loose association of states or territorial divisions in which very little power or no power at all is lodged in a central goverment
  3. Unitary System
    a system in which a central govermnet has complete power over its constituent units or states
  4. Supremacy Clause
    the provision in Article VI of the Constitution that the constitution itself and the laws and treaties of the unites states are the supreme law of the land, taking precedance over state laws, and constitutions when they are in conflict
  5. Tenth Amendment
    Part of the bill of Rights, the Amendment that says that those powers not given to the federal goverment and not prohibited for the states by the constitution are preserved for the states and the people.
  6. Reservation Clause
    The Tenth Amendment to the Constitution reserving power to the states or the people
  7. Concurerent powers
    powers under the constitution that are shared by the federal goverment
  8. Horizontal Federalism
    term used to refer to relationships among the states
  9. Interstate Compacts
    Agreements among states to cooperate on solving mutual problems; reguires approval by congress
  10. Nationalistic Position
    the view of American federalism that hold that hte constituition created a system in which the national government is supreme, relatiove to the staes, and that it granted that government abrad range of powers and responsibilities.
  11. necessary and proper clause
    article 1 section 8 of the constitution, also known as the elastic clasue; gives congress the authority to make whatever laws are necessary and proper to carry out its enurmerated responsibilities
  12. States' right position
    the view of American federalism that hold that constitution created a system of dual sovereignty in which the national government and the state governments are sovereign in their own spheres.
  13. Dual Federalism
    an interpretation of federalism in which the states and the national goverment have separate jurisdictions and responsibilities.
  14. Nullification
    an attempt by staes to declare national laws or actions null and void
  15. Preemptioin
    exclusion of the states from actions that might interfere with federal authority or statutes
  16. Civil War Amendments
    the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments to the constitution, adopted immediately after Civil War
  17. Due Process Clause
    the section of the 14th amendment that prohibits tstaes from depriving anyone of life, liberty or property "without due process of law," a guarantee against arbitrary or unfair goverment action.
  18. Equal Protection Clause
    the section of the 14th Amedment that provides equal protection of the laws to all persons
  19. Devolution
    the delegation of power by the central goverment to state or local bodies
  20. Cooperative federalism
    fedralism in which the powers and responibilities of the states and the national goverment are interwined and in which they work together to solve common problems.
  21. Fiscal Federalism
    the aspect of federalism having to do with federal grants to the states
  22. grants in aid
    founds from the national goverment to state and local goernment to help pay for program created by national government
  23. Categorical grants
    federal aid to staes and localities clearly specifiying what the money can be used for
  24. block grants
    federal grants to the states to be used for general activities
  25. General Revenue Sharing
    Federal aid to the states without any conditions on how the money is to be spent
  26. Conditional Grants
    federal grants with provision requiring that states and local governments follow certain policies in order to obtain founds
  27. Mandate
    A formal order fron the national government that the states carry out certain policies
Card Set
Political Science 101
Federalism: State and Nation