Chapter 7: Food + Agriculture

  1. Where is the richest savanna in the world?
  2. Have food supplies kept up with the increasing human numbers of the past two centuries?
  3. Nearly 60 percent of residents of developing countries were this, meaning their diet didn't provide the 2,200 calories per day.
    Chronically undernourished
  4. The ability to obtain sufficient food on a day-to-day basis.
    Food security
  5. What is the greatest threat to food security?
  6. Large-scale food shortages, massive starvation, social disruption and economic chaor.
  7. What country has the largest number of hungry people in the world?
  8. Famines usually trigger what?
    Mass migrations
  9. Has a democratic country with a relatively free press ever had a famine?
  10. A nutritional imbalance caused by a lack of specific dietary components or an inability to absorb or utilize essential nutrients.
  11. Seriously overweight
  12. The most common nutritional problem in the world. Low hemoglobin levels in the blood, usually caused by iron deficiency.
  13. A protein condition that occurs mainly in young children who eat mostly cheap, starchy foods and don't get enough good quality protein.
  14. Protein deficiency caused by a diet low in both caolories and protein. Child suffering from this is usually thin and shriveled.
  15. Name the three crops humans depend on for the majority of its nutrients.
    Wheat, rice, maize.
  16. Where is meat consumption growing rapidly?
    Developing countries.
  17. More than half of all antibiotics used in the US are administered to what?
  18. A complex mixture of weathered rock material, partially decomposed organic molecules, and a host of living organisms.
  19. A layer of soil beneath the topsoil that has lower organic content and highger concentrations of fine mineral particles.
  20. The first true layer of soil; organic material is mixed with mineral particles.
  21. Layers of soil that reveal uch about the soil's history and usefulness.
    Soil horizons
  22. Water flowing across a gently sloping, bare field removes a thin, uniform layer of soil in what is known as...
    sheet erosion
  23. When little rivulets of running water gather together and cut small channels in the soil, this process is called...
    rill erosion
  24. If rills enlarge to form bigger channels or ravines that are too large to be removed by normal tillage operations, we call this process...
    gully erosion
  25. Conversion of productive land to a desert.
  26. Water saturation of soil that fills all the air spaces and causes plant roots to die from lack of oxygen.
  27. Mineral salts accumulate in soil. This is often a problem when irrigation water dissolves and mobilizes salts in the soil
  28. Dramatically increased agricultural production brought about by "miracle" strains of grain.
    green revolution
  29. Splicing a gene from one organism into the chromosome of another
    Genetic engineering
  30. Organisms created by combining natural or synthetic genes using the techniques of molecular biology
    genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
  31. People who blindly oppose any new technology.
  32. Aims to produce food and fiber on a sustainable basis and repair the damage caused by destructive practices.
    Sustainable agriculture or regenerative farming
  33. Plants grown under a canopy of taller trees, such as coffee.
  34. Plowing across the hill rather than up and down, can reduce water runoff.
    Contour plowing
  35. The planting of different kinds of crops in alternating strips along the land contours.
  36. Shaping the land to create level shelves of earth to hold water and soil
  37. Plants that grow for more than two years.
    Perennial species
  38. A general term for a protective groundcover that includes manure, wood chips, straw, seaweed leaves and other natural products.
  39. Involves reducing the number of times a farmer disturbs the soil by plowing.
    Minimum till
  40. Farming uses a coulter, which slices through the soil and opens up a slot just wide enough to insert seeds.
  41. Planting is accomplished by drilling seeds into the ground directly through mulch and groundcover.
  42. Sutainable farming using ecological knowledge.
Card Set
Chapter 7: Food + Agriculture
Environmental Geography