1. Size: small, 0.2-2.0 μm
    Nuclear body: no nuclear membrane, no mitosis
    DNA: single molecule; not in chromosomes
    Organelles: None
    Cell Wall: relatively thin; usually peptidoglycan
    Ribsome: 70s
    • Prokaryotic
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  2. Size: Larger, 2-200 μm
    Nuclear body: True nucleus, nuclear membrane; mitosis
    DNA: several to many chromosomes
    Organelles: Yes
    Cell Wall: Thick or absent; chemically different
    Ribsome: 80s (70s in organelles)
    • Eukaryotic
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  3. A group of diverse, eukaryotic, typical unicellular microorganisms.
    Has a Cellular structure.
  4. A group of diverse, eukaryotic, unicellular and multicultural microorganisms including (Yeast, Mold, Mushroom).
    Has a Cellular structure.
  5. A group of filamentous, branching, gram-positive organisms resemble fungi on morphology, but they are prokaryotic size.
    Has a Cellular structure.
    • Actinomycetes
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  6. A group of diverse, prokaryotic, single cell microorganisms.
    Has a Cellular structure.
  7. Small, prokaryotic organisms, with no peptioglycan cell walls, enclosed by a membrane composed of lipid bilayer.
    Has a Cellular structure.
  8. A genus of very small bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites, using host's energy in form of ATP and NAD+.
    Has a Cellular structure.
  9. A group of prokaryotic small bacteria only grow inside living host cells.
    Has a Cellular structure.
  10. No cell structure, can not independently live, no metabolism of their own, have their own genetic elements (DNA / RNA) complexed with protein.
    Has no cellular structure.
    • Viruses
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  11. Small circular single-stranded RNA, which is not complexed with any protein.
    Has no cellular structure.
  12. Small protein which appear to be self-replicated but are completely devoid of nucleic acid.
    Has no Cellular structure.
  13. What is the difference between Intracellular and Extracellular infections?
    • Intracellular - pathogens must enter cell
    • Extracellular - pathogens attack outside of cells
  14. Microbes both cause and prevent disease.
    Microbes produce antibiotics used to treat disease.
    The single most important achievement of modern medicine is the ability to treat or prevent microbial disease.
    Medical Microbiology
  15. Normally not harmful, when the immune system is weak or by some other reasons become pathogen.
    Opportunistic Pathogens (i.e. E.coli)
  16. Microorganisms that do not cause disease but are found on / in skin, eyes, nose, mouth, upper thoat, lower urethra, lower intestines and large intestines.
    Normal flora
  17. What are the relative size of organisms form smallest to largest?
    • Prions
    • Proteins
    • Viruses
    • Mycoplasma
    • Chlyamydiae
    • Rickettsiae
    • Mitochondrion
    • Bacteria
    • Eukaryotes
    • Large protozoa
    • Worms
  18. "kissing disease"
    Caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
    Infects B cells and Epithelial cells
    Infectious Mononucleosis
  19. What are the complication of "mono"?
    • Mild inflammation of liver / Hepatitis
    • Splenomegaly leading to possible rupture
    • Pericarditis
    • Myocarditis
    • Encephalitis
    • Hemolytic Anemia
  20. Thickness of wall : thick (20-80 nm)
    Number of layers: 1
    Peptidoglycan (murein) content: > 50%
    Teichoic acids in wall: present
    Lipid and lipprotein content: 0-3%
    Protein content: 0
    Lipopolysaccharide content: 0
    Sensitivity to Penicillin G: yes
    Sensitivity to lysosomes: yes
    Properties of Gram-postive bacteria
  21. Thickness of wall : thin (10 nm)
    Number of layers: 2
    Peptidoglycan (murein) content: 10-20%
    Teichoic acids in wall: absent
    Lipid and lipprotein content: 58%
    Protein content: 9%
    Lipopolysaccharide content: 13%
    Sensitivity to Penicillin G: no
    Sensitivity to lysosomes: no
    Properties of Gram-negative bacteria
  22. Identify the following and their definitions
    Image Upload 6
    • 1. Flagella - filamentous protein structure attached to the cell surface that provide swimming movement for most motile bacterial cells (found in most Gram-negative bacteria)
    • 2. Fimbriae / Pili - short, hair-like structures on the surface of bacterial cells (found in most Gram-negative bacteria
    • 3. Capsule - Lipidpolysaccharide (LPS) layer outside cell wall
  23. Released from bacterial cells and may act at tissue sites removed from the site of bacterial growth
    Exotoxins (Gram-positive in nature)
  24. Released from growing bacterial cells and cells that are lysed as a result of effective host defense or the activities of certain antibiotics
    Endotoxins / LPS (Gram-negative in nature)
  25. Chemical Nature: LPS (mw = 10 kDa)
    Relationship to cell: part of outer membrane (lipid)
    Denatured by Boiling: No
    Antigenic: Yes
    Potency: Relatively low (>100 ug)
    Specificity: Low Degree
    Enzymatic activity: No
    Pyrogenicity: Yes
    Characteristics of Bacterial Endotoxins / LPS
  26. Chemical Nature: Protein (mw = 50-1000 kDa)
    Relationship to cell: extracellular, diffusible (protein)
    Denatured by Boiling: Usually
    Antigenic: Yes
    Potency: Relatively high (1 ug)
    Specificity: High Degree
    Enzymatic activity: Usually
    Pyrogenicity: Occasionally
    Characteristics of Bacterial Exotoxins
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